Anatomy- Chapter 22

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Anatomy- Chapter 22
2011-07-17 14:27:19

vessels and circulation
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  1. Intima
    inner, endothelium
  2. media
    middle, smooth muscle
  3. adventitia
    outer, areolar connective tissue
  4. In large vessels this layer will house blood vessels that supply the large vessels. What do we call these vessels?
    Vasa vasorum
  5. Vasoconstriction
    decrease in vessel diameter
  6. vasodilation
    increase in vessel diameter
  7. Describe some of the difference between arteries and veins
    • -arterial walls are thicker.
    • -arteries appear smaller and round.
    • -veins have valves.
  8. Large, dominated by elastic fibers, stretch under pressure.
    • elastic
    • -aorta, pulmomary trunk, common iliac and carotid
  9. thick media dominated by smooth muscle
    • muscular
    • -brachial, femoral inferior
  10. Small, poorly defined adventitia and thin media
    • arterioles
    • -distribute blood to capillaries.
  11. What do we call the smallest, most delicate vessels that are involved in exchange between the blood supply and other areas?
  12. Continuous
    most body regions, complete/tight endothelium
  13. Fenestrated
    Kidneys and endocrine glands, small pores
  14. Sinusoids
    liver and bone marrow, large pores, may lack basal lamina
  15. Veins lack blood pressure. How does venous blood return to the heart?
    • In most veins- skeletal muscle pump
    • In the vanae cavae- thoracoabdominal pump
  16. If we face serious blood loss our veins contract to reduce the volume of blood that hold so that it can be distributed to the arteries and capillaries. What do we call this blood supply?
    Venous reserve
  17. What do we call veins that travel alongside arteries and share their names?
    Companion vessels
  18. Outline blood flow in the pulmonary circuit beginning at the pulmonary semilunar valve and ending at the left atrium.
    • - pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to (smaller branches )
    • -to capillary network on alveoli
    • -pulmonary veins
  19. The systemic circuit begins as we pass through the aortic semilunar valve. Name the vessel that leaves the left ventricle and the two arteries that branch off of it.
    • Ascending aorta
    • - right and left coronary arteries
  20. Name the curved, superior section of the large vesel that leaces the left ventricle and the three major vessels that branch off of it in order from proximal to distal.
    • Aortic arch
    • -brachiocephalic trunk
    • -left common carotid artery
    • - left subclavian artery
  21. The brachiocephalic trunk only goes a short distance before bifurcating. What are the two branches?
    • - right common carotid artery
    • - right subclavian artery
  22. What section of the vessel that leaves the left ventricle runs from approximately T5 to where it penetrates the diaphragm and supplies arteries that bear the name of the structures they supply?
    Thoracic aorta
  23. What section of the vessel that leaves the left ventricle runs retroperitoneal from the diaphragm down to L4 where it bifurcates and into what two vessels does it bifurcate?
    • Abdominal aorta
    • -L&R common iliac arteries
  24. What vessel return blood from thehead, arms, and thorax to the heart?
    Superior vena cava
  25. What 3 (main) vessels converge to form the superior vena cava?
    • brachiocephalic veins
    • -drains the head and arm on each side
    • azygos vein
    • -drains majority of thorax
  26. What two (main) vessels converge to form the brachiocephalic veins?
    • subclavian vein
    • -drains arm
    • internal jugular vein
    • -drains the majority of the cranium
  27. What vessel returns blood from the lower limbs and abdomen to the heart?
    inferior vena cava
  28. What two vessels converge to from the inferior vena cava and from what vessels to they arise?
    • R&L common iliac veins
    • -drains the lower limb within the torso: external iliac veins
    • -drains the pelvis into the abdomen: internal iliac veins
  29. Short, supplies the liwer, spleen and digestive tract?
    celiac trunk
  30. supplies stomach and inferior esophagus?
    left gastric artery
  31. Supplies spleen and pancreas?
    splenic artery
  32. supplies liver, gallbladder, and stomach?
    common hepatic artery
  33. Supplies the majority of the intestines?
    superior mesenteric artery
  34. supplies the distal colon and rectum?
    inferior mesenteric artery
  35. Large, supple the kidneys?
    renal arteries
  36. small, supply the gonads?
    gonadal arteries
  37. Gonadal arteries have different names in
    men: ______.
    and women _______.
    what are they?
    • male: testicular artery
    • female: ovarian artery
  38. Blood from the digestive tract, pancreas, and spleen do not drain directly into the inferior vena cava but instead flows into a second set of capillaries in the liver where the venous blood mixes with arterial blood before returning to the inferior vena cava. What is the name of this network of vessels that drain this region?
    hepatic portal system
  39. What vessel drains the digestive tract, pancreas, and spleen into the liver and what are its 3 tributaries?
    • inferior mesenteric vein
    • drains the distal colon and rectum
    • spleinic vein
    • drains the spleen and pancreas
    • superior mesenteric vein
    • drains the majority of the intestine and stomach
  40. What vessel drain the liver into the inferior vena cava?
    hepatic veins
  41. Explain the difference between the venous drainage of the renal and gonadal veins on left and right sides of the body in light of the position of the inferior vena cava.
    • renal- left is longer
    • gonadal- left drains into left renal not IVC
  42. What vessel provides blood to the cranium and face?
    common carotid artery
  43. What are the names of two branches formed at this bifurcation and what is the name of the receptor containing enlargement at the base of one of them.
    • Internal carotid artery
    • -supplied the brain
    • Carotid artery
    • -contains baroreceptors and chemoreceptors
    • External carotid artery
    • -supplies the neck and face
  44. What branch of the subclavian artery travels through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae to supply the brain?
    vertebral artery
  45. Two pairs of vessels approach the brain from below and join together through a set of arteries to provide collateral circulation. What do we call this arterial network?
    cerebral arterial circle
  46. Name the artery:

    forms from the convergence of vertebral arteries
    basilar artery
  47. Name the artery:

    from the internal carotid artery and supplies anterior brain
    anterior cerebral arteries
  48. Name the artery:

    from the internal carotid artery and supplies midbrain/lateral brain
    middle cerebral arteries
  49. Name the artery:

    from the bifurcation of basilar artery, supplies posterior brain.
    posterior cerebral arteries
  50. Name the artery:

    connects the anterior cerebral arteries
    anterior communicating
  51. Name the artery:

    connects the internal carotid artery to posterior cerebral artery
    posterior communcating arteries
  52. what large, deep vessel collect blood from the dural venous sinuses and veins of the face to drain the majority of the blood from the head?
    internal jugular vein
  53. What superficial vessel drains much of the blood from the face and neck into the subclavian vein?
    external jugular vein
  54. What large artery supplies blood to the upper limb as well as the brain and anterior thorax?
    subclavian artery
  55. Name the artery:

    1st rib to the arm, supplying the shoulder, axilla and pectoral region
    axillary artery
  56. Name the artery:

    medial humerus, supplying the upper arm
    brachial artery
  57. bifurcation of brachial, supplying the lateral foramen
    radial artery
  58. Name the artery:

    bifurcation of bracial, supplying the medial foramen
    ulnar artery
  59. What are the three basic components of the blood flow in the hand?
    • -superficial and deep palmar arches
    • -digital arteries
  60. Name the vein:

    lateral forarm to the shoulder
    cephalic vein
  61. Name the vein:

    medial forearm to the axilla
    basilic vein
  62. Name the vein:

    Joins the lateral and medial superficial veins in antecubital fossa
    median cubital vein
  63. What large artery supplies blood to the lower limb changing its name as it passes deep to the inguinal ligament?
    external iliac artery
  64. Name the artery:

    anteromedal thigh from inguinal ligament to hiatus in adductor magus
    femoral artery
  65. Name the artery:
    posterior thigh, supplying the deep muscles of the thigh
    deep femoral artery
  66. Name the artery:

    back of the knee, bifurcates to supply leg
    popliteal artery
  67. Name the artery:

    bifurcation of the popliteal artery, supplying the posterior compartment
    posterior tibial artery
  68. Name the artery:

    bifurcation of the popliteal artery, supplying the anterior compartment
    anterior tibial artery
  69. Name the artery:

    branch of the posterior tibial artery, supplying the lateral compartment
    fibular artery
  70. Name the vein:

    lateral arch of foot to back of knee
    small saphenous vein
  71. Name the vein:

    returns blood from placenta to fetus
    umbilical vein
  72. Name the artery:

    carries blood from fetus to placenta
    umbilical artery