Aphasia Test 2

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ggarriott
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94324
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Aphasia Test 2
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2011-07-17 23:09:20
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Dysarthria Apraxia Aphasia
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Aphasia Test 2
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  1. Group of speech disorders caused by paralysis, weakness, slowness, incoordination...NOT a language disturbance
    Dysarthria
  2. Incapable of movement
    Paralysis
  3. Type of paralysis where movement is effortful w/ abnormally high levels of tension in resting muscles caused by UMN damage.
    Spasticity
  4. Term associated with dysarthria caused by LMN damage and flaccidity is the result
    Weakness
  5. Term associated with dysarthria including hypokinetic & hyperkinetic-quick & hyperkinetic-slow caused by extrapyramidal system-basal ganglia damage.
    Slowness
  6. Term associated with dysarthria affecting speech processes resulting in ataxia.
    Incoordination
  7. Spasticity, hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign are all results associated with damage ________?
    UMN--paralysis
  8. Flaccidity, fasciculations, & atrophy are all results associated with damage to _________.
    LMN--weakness
  9. Hypokinesis (rigidity) & Hyperkinesis are results of damage to _________.
    Extrapyramidal system--slowness
  10. Ataxia/Atonia is the result of damage to _________.
    Cerebellum--incoordination
  11. What speech process is affected by thoracic muscles?
    Respiration
  12. What speech process is affected by the larynx?
    Phonation
  13. What speech process is affected by the velum?
    Resonance
  14. What speech process is affected by the tongue, lips, & mandible?
    Articulation
  15. What speech process is affected by the combined effects on articulation, phonation, & respiration?
    Prosody
  16. Unilateral damage to ___________ are to neurons in the motor cortex that connect to motor nuclei in the brain stem.
    UMN
  17. Unilateral damage to ___________ are to fibers that connect cortical motor neurons to motor nuclei in the brain stem (usually doesn't cause persisting dysarthria)
    Corticobulbar tracts
  18. The muscles of the upper face, pharynx. larynx. & jaw are _____________ innervated.
    Bilaterally
  19. Lower face, mastication, lips, palate, tongue are ______ innervated.
    Unilaterally
  20. Effects on speech typically result from _________ lestions.
    Bilateral
  21. Refers to symptoms resulting from bilateral damage. Lesions occur separately on 2 sides (1st is "silent"; 2nd "unmasks" the damage)...may initially appear to resemble damage to UMN at the level of the bulb usually accompanied by exaggerated brainstem reflexes & spastic paralysis.
    • Pseudobulbar palsy (Suprabulbar)
    • Bilateral UMN (Corticobulbar)
  22. This type of paralysis may accompany pseudobulbar palsy due to proximity; hyperreflexia/hypertonia of affected limbs contralateral to insult; positive Babinski sign reflects disruption of inhibitor tracts.
    UMN Corticospinal tract lesions
  23. What type of damage is characterized by flaccidity, fasciculations, atrophy, brainstem--bulbar palsy?
    LMN---leasions of cranial nerves/nuclei
  24. Lesion often destroys proximal pyramidal tract fibers for arm/leg prior to their decussation.
    Cranial nerve nucleus--contralateral limbs spastic
  25. Weakened movement of jaw is associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Trigeminal V
  26. Motor weakness/flaccidity of ipsilateral face, eyelids, & muscles of expression (Bell's palsy) are associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Facial VII
  27. Loss of gag reflex, weakened elevation of palate/larynx, weakened pharynx constriction (hypernasality), & dysphagia are associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Glossopharyngeal IX
  28. Ipsilateral paralysis/weakness of soft palate & unilateral vocal fold paralysis (recurrent laryngeal branch are associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Vagus X
  29. Weakened muscles in neck/shoulders, respiration, head droop, & phonation are associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Accessory XI
  30. Ipsilateral weakness of tongue/poor lateral movement deviating to weak side, swallowing difficulties & diminished control of bolus are associated with damage to what cranial nerve?
    Hypoglossal XII
  31. Progressive degeneration of LMN & UMN neurons of unknown etiology, onset in 50's, mixed symptoms, brainstem ones are devastating, fatal w'in 1-3 years, Poliomyelitis.
    ALS-Lou Gherig's disease--Anterior Horn Cell Disease
  32. Acute idiopathic polyneuritis
    Simultaneous inflammation of large # of spinal nerves
    Paralysis, pain, atrophy
    Unkonw cause; sequelae of viral infections
    increased CSF protein
    Guillain Barre Syndrome--Spinal Nerve Disease
  33. Neurologic disease caused by damage to acetylcholine receptors on muscle cells characterized by abnormally rapid muscle fatigue with use.
    Myasthenia Gravis--Neuromuscular Junction
  34. Adult form of muscular dystrophy causing progressive weakening of muscles.
    • Myotonic-muscular dystrophy
    • Muscle fiber
  35. What are the 6 types of dysarthrias?
    • Spastic
    • Flaccid
    • Ataxic
    • Hypokinetic
    • Hyperkinetic-Quick
    • Hyperkinetic--Slow
  36. What type of dysarthria is distinguished by hyperactive reflexes, slow-limited-effortful movement, slow to reach targets, & strained-strangled monopitch-tone voice quality?
    Spastic dysarthria
  37. What type of dysarthria is distinguished by weakness, fasciculations, muscle atrophy, Myasthenia Gravis, inability to reach targets, nasal emission, breathy-short-weak-shallow voice w/ frequent pauses?
    Flaccid dysarthria
  38. Involuntary movements that cause visible movements of muscle fibers.
    Fasciculations
  39. What type of dysarthria is distinguished by incoordination, hypotonia, dysmetria, irregular articulatory breakdown, abrupt-irregular-"explosive" changes in loudness & pitch & unequal stress.
    Ataxic dysarthria
  40. What type of dysarthria is distinguished by tremor, Parkinson's, inability to reach targets, rapid diadokinethesis, low amplitude, elevated pitch, monopitch-loudness, inappropriate pauses, shallow, reduced stress, & masked facies?
    Hypokinetic dysarthria
  41. Cyclic, small amplitude involuntary movements, usually more severe in distal muscles than in proximal muscles.
    Tremor
  42. Rigidity of facial muscles, causing fixed, unchanging facial expression; prominent characteristic of Parkinson's disease.
    Masked facies
  43. What type of dysarthria is distinguished by (chorea), ballisms, myoclonic, Tourettes, unsustained involuntary movements, harsh, monopitch, excessive variable loudness w/ irregular frequent pauses, dysphagia.
    Hyperkinetic-Quick dysarthria
  44. Which type of dysarthria is distinguished by athetosis, (dystonia), sustained, unpredictable, involuntary movements, strained-strangled, harsh monopitch-loudness voice quality?
    Hyperkinetic-Slow dysarthria
  45. What type of dysarthria is characterized by myoclonus, tics, chorea, ballism, rapid unpatterned, unsustained involuntary movements?
    Hyperkinetic-Quick dysarthria
  46. What type of dyarthria is characterized by athetosis, dystonia, sustained involuntary movements that build slowly to a peak before gradually subsiding?
    Hyperkinetic-Slow dysarthria
  47. Disease that causes quick & forceful involuntary movements?
    Chorea
  48. Abnormally low levels of tension in resting muscles
    Hypotonia
  49. Extreme form of chorea, in which limbs are flung wildly about by involuntary movements.
    Ballism
  50. Fine, sudden, rapid, irregular twitching movements caused by contractions of groups of muscle fibers. Usually observable as dimpling or rippling of the skin over the muxle fibers. (Crossed legs & foot jerks or falling asleep and jerking awake)
    Myoclonus
  51. Toxic hyperkinetic-quick infectious disease
    Sydenham's chorea
  52. Hereditary hyperkinetic-quick neurologic disease characterized by progressive chorea and dementia.
    Huntington's chorea
  53. Hyperkinetic-Quick dyskinesia associated with jerks and tics
    Tourette's Syndrome
  54. Stereotypic repetitive movements such as blinking, coughing, or sniffing; usually not related to nervous system pathology.
    Tics
  55. Slow, sinuous, writhing, & uncontrollable muscle movements.
    Athetosis
  56. Persisting involuntary contractions of muscles, sometimes called torsion spasm.
    Dystonia
  57. Abnormal & involuntary muscle movements, often seen as a consquence of extrapyramidal disease. (tremor, chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, fasciculations, fibrillations, tics)
    Dyskinesia
  58. Clumsiness and incoordination of movements caused by cerebellar damage.
    Ataxia
  59. Slow & awkward movements; component of ataxia (disturbance of measure--overshooting picking something up)
    Dysmetria
  60. Shrinkage/wasting away of tissues/loss of background mucle tone due to damaged gamma system
    Atrophy/Atonia
  61. Type of dyskinesia with diminished range of movement resulting from rigidity--extrapyramidal activation of both extensors and flexors.
    Hypokinetic
  62. Degenerative hypokinetic disease affecting neurons in the midbrain and brain stem. Arteriosclerotic changes in basal ganglia (substantia nigra) causing deficiency in "dopamine"- neural transmitter substance.
    Parkinson's disease
  63. Smooth rigidity
    Leadpipe
  64. Intermittent-stepwise rigidity
    Cogwheel
  65. Resistance of muscles to movement in any direction. ___________ is elicited in passive movement, involuntary contraction of the muscle being stretched; results in simultaneous stimulation of extensors & flexors. Prominent characteristic of Parkinson's disease.
    Rigidity
  66. Pill rolling tremor
    Resting Tremor
  67. Rigid facial expression
    Masked Facies
  68. Short, stiff, shuffling steps
    Festinating Gait
  69. Disruption of volitional movement sequences in the absence of sensory loss, weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the muscles involve in the movements. Usually a consequence of damage in premotor cortex.
    Apraxia of speech
  70. Most extreme inability to carryout movement sequences because of loss of the concept, knowledge, or idea of what the movements are intended to accomplish. (Especially "on command")...disruption of ideas needed to demonstrate use of objects (toothbrushing)...due to damage of left parietal lobe
    Ideational Apraxia
  71. More mild version of apraxia; inability to carryout movement sequences bec/ of loss of ability to organize motor plans or patterns for the movements. May demonstrate gestures that comprise of an action but is unable to assemble them into the proper sequence...damage in frontal lobe esp. premotor cortex.
    Ideomotor apraxia
  72. Type of ideomotor apraxia affecting oral motor tasks not related to speech such as whistling, using a straw, or blowing feathers.
    Buccofacial apraxia
  73. Type of ideomotor apraxia affecting tasks such as toothbrushing, suing a door key, or opening a padlock.
    Limb apraxia
  74. Type of ideomotor apraxia affecting thr formation of sounds and sound sequences.
    Speech apraxia
  75. Approach to understanding the functional architecture of nervous system by relating neurologically damaged patients' symptoms to damaged regions of the nervous system. Specific functions are localized "housed" in specific locations on the cortex.
    Localization
  76. Concept that all the various areas of cortex contribute to performing a given function..."to localize damage which destroys speech & localize speech are 2 different things."
    Equipotentiality
  77. Model that has the concept that certain regions of the brain may have specific responsibilities for some aspect of language function & these regions must "interconnect" to efficiently produce "language." Aphasia "syndromes"--damage to certain areas appears to produce relatively predictable collections of symptoms.
    Connectionist model
  78. Ability of the brain to reassign functions served by one area to a different area, usually in response to brain injury...greatest in infants & declines steadily with age.
    Cerebral Plasticity
  79. What connectionist component is responsible for the motor programming for speech?
    Broca's area
  80. What connectionist component is responsible for the activation of muscles for speech?
    Motor strip
  81. What connectionist component is responsible for the transmission of info from posterior areas to anterior areas?
    Arcuate Fasciculus
  82. What connectionist component is responsible for the comprehension & formulation of oral language?
    Wernicke's area
  83. What connectionist component is responsible for symbolic integration for reading?
    Angular Gyrus
  84. What connectionist component is responsible for symbolic integration for writing?
    Supramarginal Gyrus
  85. What connectionist component is responsible for transmission of info between the hemispheres.
    Corpus Callosum
  86. Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus --> Broca's --> Motor Strips (via Corpus Callosum)
    Spontaneous Speech
  87. Which connectionist explanation of language function is preceded by "associations"?
    Spontaneous Speech
  88. Heschl's Gyrus --> Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus --> Broca's --> Motor Strips (via Corpus Callosum)
    Repetition
  89. Which connectionist explanation of language function follows the same sequence as spontaneous speech after going through Heschl's gyrus?
    Repetition
  90. Heschl's Gyrus --> Wernicke's --> various areas (speech, gesture, writing)
    Comprehension of speech
  91. Actual comprehension must be demonstrated through some response modality in this connectionist explanation of language function.
    Comprehension of Speech
  92. Primary visual cortex --> Visual assoc. area --> Angular gyrus --> Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus --> Broca's --> Motor Strips
    Reading Aloud (Comprehension of Printed Material)
  93. Primary visual cortex --> Visual assoc. area --> Angular gyrus --> Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus --> Premotor Cortex
    Gestural Response (Comprehension of Printed Material)
  94. Primary visual cortex --> Visual assoc. area --> Angular gyrus --> Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus -->Supramarginal Gyrus --> Premotor cortex
    Written Response (Comprehension of Printed Material)
  95. Heschl's --> Wernicke's --> Arcuate Fasciculus --> Premotor cortex --> Motor Strip
    Gestural Responses to Spoken Commands
  96. Wernicke's --> Supramarginal Gyrus --> Premotor cortex --> Motor Strip
    Writing
  97. What are the 3 Geographic classification systems for aphasia?
    • Perisylvian
    • Borderzone
    • Subcortical
  98. Geographic region of classification systems for aphasia in the left frontal lobe sometimes called the anterior language zone that plays an important part in planning and performing expressive language actions (speech, writing, and perhaps gesture).
    Perisylvian region
  99. What aphasias are associated with the Perisylvian region?
    • Broca's
    • Wernicke's
    • Conduction
    • Global
  100. Region of the cortex just anterior to the lower end of the primary cortex.
    Broca's area
  101. Aphasia syndrome characterized by nonfluent speech that is labored, halting, effortful w/ many misarticulations and is "telegraphic" & "agrammatic", good comprehension, & poor repetition. Handwriting resembles speech...Auditory comprehension is better than speech...R. hemiplegia...spastic dysarthria may accompany.
    Broca's aphasia
  102. Speech in which function words are left out
    Telegraphic speech
  103. Speech in which content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives) are present but most function words (articles, prepositions, conjunctions) are missing. Common characteristic of speech of adults with Broca's aphasia.
    Agrammatism
  104. Paralysis of an arm and a leg on one side of the body
    Hemiplegia
  105. Region of the cortex in the vicinity of the temporo-parietal-occipital junction.
    Wernicke's area
  106. Aphasia syndrome characterized by fluent but empty speech, poor comprehension, and poor repetition
    Wernicke's aphasia
  107. Substitution errors in speaking made by aphasic persons
    Paraphasia
  108. Errors in which a speaker substitutes one sound in a word for another , such as "lair" for "chair"w/out groping behaviors.
    Literal (Phonemic) Paraphasias
  109. Errors in which a speaker substitutes one word for another, such as saying "chair for "table".
    Verbal (Semantic) Paraphasias
  110. Nonword utterances that follow the phonologic conventions of the language...often are heard in the speech of adults w/ severe Wernicke's aphasia or global aphasia.
    Neologisms
  111. Excessive verbosity. Patients w/ mild-moderate Wernicke's or conduction aphasia are likely to exhibit.
    Logorrhea (press of speech)
  112. Nonsensical utterances, such as "There's a navy dog flying in the hoghouse this morning." in which words are uttered in syntactically legitimate strings, but which have no overall meaning; may contain neologisms.
    Paragrammatisms (or Jargon depending on who you ask)
  113. Meaningless strings of phonologically "correct" syllables with appropriate intonation but are just "gibberish".
    Jargon
  114. Blindness in one-half of the visual field...Corresponding halves of the visual fields or retinae lesion deep in the temporal lobe causing right visual field cut.
    Homonymous Hemianopsia
  115. Inability or impaired ability to retrieve and produce words; "word-finding" difficulties; may be a feature of all aphasias often follows diffuse damage from encephalitis, dementias, etc.
    Anomia
  116. Anomic aphasia some consider to be a "very mild" form of _____________ aphasia.
    Wernicke's
  117. Aphasia that involves lesions in auditory association area; primary S-L characteristic is word-finding w/ otherwise near normal expressive language & auditory comprehension.
    Anomic aphasia
  118. What aphasia results from damage to the Arcuate Fasciculus deep in supramarginal gyrus; good comprehension/spontaneous fluent speech but repetition/self-correction is poor?
    Conduction aphasia
  119. What type of aphasia is when the whole dominant hemisphere has damage?
    Global aphasia
  120. What aphasia most often follows occlusion of the trunk of the MCA causing massive damage throughout the perisylvian region.
    Global aphasia
  121. What geographic classification system of aphasia is located close to watershed areas outside the perimeter of the Sylvian fissure?
    Borderzone
  122. Rare aphasia syndrome characterized by good comprehension, sparse speech output, and good repetition. Damage in borderzone areas disturbing Broca's but spares arcuate fasciculus connections into portion of Broca's. Loss of initiative=pathological inertia. Apraxia prominent feature of spontaneous speech.
    Transcortical Motor aphasia (Anterior isolation syndrome/dynamic aphasia)
  123. Aphasia syndrome characterized by poor comprehension, fluent but empty & pathologic echolalic speech, and good repetition. Damage isolates Wernicke's but spares arcuate fasciculus.
    Transcortical Sensory aphasia (Posterior isolation syndrome)
  124. Aphasia w/ characteristics of both receptive/expressive or fluent/nonfluent, but less severe.
    Mixed aphasia
  125. Aphasia syndrome characterized by profound comprehension impairment, little or no functional language, does not repeat..."sterotypies" are common.
    Global aphasia
  126. Aphasia that apparently is caused by damage in and around the basal ganglia. It's unknown if the damaged regions directly participate in language, or if this aphasia is caused by interfering w/ the function of other language-competent brain regions; results in various aphasia-like symptoms.
    Subcortical aphasia
  127. What are the dichotomous terms that identify classifications of aphasia?
    • Fluent vx. Nonfluent
    • Recptive vs. Expressive
    • Sensory vs. Motor
    • Posterior vx. Anterior
  128. Rating scale that judges patients' aphasia type primarily on the characteristics of the speech they produce in an interview. Rates melodic line, phrase length, articulatory agility, grammatic form, paraphasia, repetition, & word finding in connected speech.
    Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE)
  129. Aphasia symptoms are not bizarre & mysterious, rather they are ____________ __________ of everyday occurrences/behaviors.
    Extreme variations
  130. What 2 basic underlying problems do all aphasias share to different degrees?
    • Comprehension
    • Word-Retrieval (anomia)

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