chapter 14-2.txt

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chapter 14-2.txt
2011-07-17 18:03:26

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  1. what do long-term interventions do?
    • determine readiness for change
    • emphasize WHAT to eat, rather than WHAT NOT to eat
    • suggest 1-2 changes at a time
  2. when is a mechanically altered diet approptoate?
    • for difficulties of chewing or swallowing
    • dental problems
    • neurological problems
    • surgery of the head or neck
    • anatomical physiological abnormalities
  3. when is a blenderized liquid diet appropriate?
    • oral or facial surgeries
    • soft or tender food from all food groups
  4. when is a clear liquid diet appropriate?
    • before and after GI procedures/surgeries
    • these diets require minimal digestion and re easily absorbed
  5. fat-restricted diet
    • fat-malabsorption problems
    • heartburn
  6. fiber-restricted diet
    • acute intestinal disorders
    • before & after surgery
    • long-term restriction is discouraged
  7. sodium-restricted diet
    • prevent or correct fluid retention
    • treatment of hypertension and CHF
  8. high kcalorie, high-protein diet
    • high nutrient requirements
    • eating poorly
  9. how can medications affect diet-drug interactions?
    • reduce appetite
    • increase appetite and weight gain
    • alter absorption, metabolism, & excretion of nutrients
    • some interactions can become toxic
  10. how can nutrients affect diet-drug interactions?
    alter absorption, metabolism, and excretion of medications
  11. what are some effects that drugs can have on food intake?
    • induce nausea & vomiting
    • alter taste sensations
    • suppress appetite
    • dry the mouth
    • cause inflammation & lesions in the mouth
    • sedate the patient
    • some stimulate food intake (weight gain)
  12. how does the stomach emptying rate affect drug absorption?
    • meals delay absorption
    • empty stomach enhances absorption
  13. how does the stomach acidity affect drug absorption?
    • some drugs need an acidic environment
    • others may need enteric coating
  14. how does grapefriut juice affect drug metabolism
    increases blood concentrations of some drugs
  15. how do vitamin k rich foods affect drug metabolism
    can weaken the effect of blood thinners
  16. nueropathic medicine
    • person's "life force" can produce healing
    • stimulated by certain health-promoting factors
    • suppressed by excesses and deficiencies
    • illness comes from internal disruption
  17. mind-body interventions
    • improve psychological and/or spiritual well-being despite illness
    • helps deal with stress, pain, or lowering BP
    • biofeedback
    • meditation
    • guided imagery
    • faith healing
  18. biologically based therapies
    use of natural products: dietary supplements, vitamin & mineral supplements, herbal & plant extracts, special foods
  19. do products such as dietary & vitamin supplements need FDA approval?
  20. what are some of the risks/disadvantages to using biologically based theories? (supplements, herbs & plant extracts, special foods)
    • do not need FDA approval
    • benefits are uncertain
    • many unfounded claims
    • some contaminants or toxicity
    • determining effectiveness is complicated
    • may interct with medications
  21. dietary supplements: what are DHEA hormone supplements used for?
    • enhanced immunity
    • increased muscle mass
    • improved aging
    • defense against aging
  22. what are the two different types of energy therapies?
    • biofield therapies
    • bioelectromagnetic
  23. what are the different bifield therapies?
    • acupuncture
    • qigong
    • therapeutic touch
  24. what does bioelectromagnetic therapy do?
    • improves circulation
    • reduces inflammation
    • speed injury recovery
  25. what are the potential dangers with CAM?
    • may not be safe (some herbs)
    • may delay use of scientific treatments
    • nuses need to inquire about the use of CAM