Biol 1010 chpt 8 voca

Card Set Information

Biol 1010 chpt 8 voca
2011-07-17 19:31:47
Biol chpt voca

Biol 1010 chpt 8 voca
Show Answers:

  1. anaphase
    Mitotic phase during which daughter chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle.
  2. angiogenesis
    Formation of new blood vessels; one mechanism by which cancer spreads.
  3. apoptosis
    Programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell.
  4. aster
    Short, radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes in animal cells.
  5. benign tumor
    Tumor that does not invade adjacent tissue and stays at the site or origin.
  6. cancer
    Malignant tumor whose nondifferentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissue and metastasize.
  7. carcinogenesis
    Development of cancer
  8. cell cycle
    Repeating sequence of events in eukaryotes that involves cell growth and nuclear division; consists of the stages G1, S, G2, and M.
  9. cell plate
    Structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls.
  10. centromere
    Constricted region on a chromosome joining two sister chromatids.
  11. centrosome
    Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles.
  12. check point
    In the cell cycle, one of several points where the cell cycle can stop or continue on, depending on the internal signal it receives; ensures that each step of the cell cycle is completed before the next one begins.
  13. chromatid
    A single DNA strand of a chromosome. Chromosomes may consist of a pair of sister chromatids.
  14. chromatin
    Network of fibrils consisting of DNA and associated proteins observed within a nucleus that is not dividing.
  15. chromosome
    Structure consisting of DNA complexed with proteins that transmits genetic information from the previous generation of cells and organisms to the next generation.
  16. contact inhibition
    In cell culture, the point where cells stop dividing when they become a one-cell thick sheet.
  17. cyclin
    Protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle progresses; combines with and activates the kinases that function to promote the events of the cycle.
  18. cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis.
  19. DNA replication
    Synthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells.
  20. histone
    Protein molecule responsible for packing chromatin.
  21. interphase
    Stages of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2) during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing.
  22. kinase
    Enzyme that activates another enzyme by adding a phosphate group.
  23. malignant
    Invasive tumor that may spread.
  24. metaphase
    Mitotic phase during which chromosomes are aligned at the spindle equator.
  25. metastasis
    Spread of cancer from the place of origin throughout the body; caused by the ability of cancer cells to migrate and invade tissues.
  26. mitosis
    Process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
  27. nucleosome
    Process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
  28. prophases
    Mitotic phase during which chromatin condenses so that chromosomes appear; chromosomes are scattered.
  29. signal
    Molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event in the cell cycle.
  30. sister chromatid
    One of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere.
  31. somatic cell
    Body cell; excludes cells that undergo meiosis and become sperm or egg.
  32. spindle
    Microtubule structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division.
  33. spindle equator
    Disk formed during metaphase in which all of a cell's chromosomes lie in a single plane at right angles to the spindle fibers.
  34. telomere
    Long, repeating DNA sequence at the ends of chromosomes; functions like a cap and keeps chromosomes from fusing with each other.
  35. telophase
    Mitotic phase during which daughter cells are located at each pole.
  36. tumor
    Cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division; benign tumors remain at the site of origin, while malignant tumors metastasize.