Parenteral Solutions

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Parenteral Solutions
2011-07-18 00:04:13

Phillips Ch. 4
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  1. Balanced Solution
    Parenteral solution that contains electrolytes in proportions similar to those in plasma; also contains bicarbonate or acetate ion
  2. Body Surface Area
    Surface area of the body determined through use of a nomogram
  3. Caloric Method
    Calculation of metabolic expenditure of energy, used in pediatric fluid maintenance and replacement
  4. Catabolism
    The breakdown of chemical compounds by the body; an energy-producing metabolic process
  5. Colloid
    A substance (e.g., blood, plasma, albumin, dextran) that does not dissolve into a true solution and is not capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane
  6. Crytalloid
    A substance that forms a true solution and is capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane (e.g., lactated Ringer's solution, isotonic saline)
  7. Dehydration
    A deficit of body water; can involve one fluid compartment or all three
  8. Hydrating solution
    A solution of water, carbohydrate, sodium, and chloride used to determine adequacy of renal function
  9. Hypertonic solution
    A solution with an osmolarity higher than that of plasma, above 375 mOsm
  10. Hypotonic solution
    A solution with an osmolarity lower than that of plasma, usually below 250 mOsm
  11. Isotonic solution
    A solution with the same osmolarity as plasma, usually 250-375 mOsm
  12. Maintenance therapy
    Fluids that provide all nutrients necessary to meet daily patient requirements, usually water, glucose, sodium, and potassium
  13. Meter square method
    Formula using a nomogram to determine surface areas of a pediatric client for maintenance of fluid needs
  14. Normal saline
    Solution of salt (0.9% sodium chloride)
  15. Oncotic pressure
    The osmotic pressure exerted by colloids (proteins), as when albumin exerts oncotic pressure within the blood vessels and helps to hold the water content of the blood in the intravascular compartment
  16. Parenteral therapy
    Introduction of substances other than through the gastrointestinal tract; particularly to the introduction of substances into an organism by intravenous route, or subcutaneous, intramuscluar, or intramedullary injection
  17. Plasma volume expander
    A high molecular weight compound in a solution suitable for intravenous use
  18. Replacement therapy
    Replenishment of losses when maintenance cannot be met and when patient is in a deficit state
  19. Restoration therapy
    Reconstruction of fluid and electrolyte needs on a continuing basis until homeostasis returns
  20. Weight method
    Formula based on weight in kilograms to estimate the fluid needs of the pediatric client