Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
2011-07-18 11:22:02
Intro AP

mini course 7
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  1. The glottis opens into the
    larynx and is guarded by the epiglottis
  2. breathing is controlled by
    the Herring-Breuer reflex
  3. The nasal chamber opens into the
  4. The glottis opens into the
  5. The trachea branches to form two
  6. The alveolar ducts terminate in
    alveolar sacs
  7. most parts of the respiratory passages are lined with
    columnar epithelium
  8. The visceral pleura
    lines the lungs
  9. There is a small amount of pleural fluid between
    the parietal and visceral pleura
  10. Alveolar sacs are located in
    the thoracic cavity
  11. The diaphragm consits of
    skeletal and voluntary muscle
  12. An extensive capillary network surrounds the
    alveolar sac
  13. Diaphragmatic breathing alone is insufficient
    during vigorous exercise
  14. Inhaltion is ____ during breathing, while expiration is _____
    active, passive
  15. The vagus nerve connects
    to stretch receptors in the lungs
  16. what is the most important factor in blood that regulates
    the rate of respiration
  17. In forced breathing during extreme exercise, the amount of air moving in/out of the lungs in one breath is called
    vital capacity
  18. basic function of respiratory system
    • facilitate exchange of gases and
    • O2 into blood CO2 out
  19. the relationship between respiratory system and circulation is
    without constant flow of blood throughout the lungs, there wouldnt be respiration
  20. breathing refers to
    all the activities nessesary to get air in and out of the lungs
  21. respiration deals with
    the movement of gases across cells in and out of the blood
  22. In the nose the nasal concha is covered
    with mucous epithelium which moistens and warms the air
  23. order of how air gets to lungs
    nose, pharynx, epiglottis, glottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, aveolar sacs
  24. pharynx
    • connects mouth cavity and esophagus together.
    • connects to the internal ear (eustachian tubes)
  25. larynx
    voice box or adams apple
  26. epiglottis
    closes the opening into the larynx when we swallow pushing the food into the espophagus
  27. glottis
    opens into the larynx and is positioned to let air into the trachea
  28. trachea
    • windpipe, held open wth cartilagionous rings,
    • has ciliated columnar cells: carry debris out the glottis where we swallow or spit
  29. bronchioles
    columnar epithelial cells
  30. aveolar sacs
    squamos cells
  31. Partetal pleura
    lines the thoracic cavity and folds back to cover the lungs
  32. visceral pleura
    covering of the lungs
  33. area of lungs
    diaphragmatic (bottom), costal, cardiac, apex(top)
  34. diaphragm
    skeletal muscle. when fibers shorten the diaphragm lowers. when it relaxes it rises back up.
  35. Blood supply for the lungs
    • large pulmonary trunk splits into the right and left pulmonary arteries that go to each lung.
    • Two large pulmonary veins leave each lung and go to the heart
  36. inhalation (inspiration)
    • process of taking air in
    • volume inside thoracic area exspands so the pressure is decreased
  37. exhalation (expiration)
    • process of eliminating air from the lungs.
    • volume inside thoracic cavity is decrease so pressue is increased.
  38. diaphragmatic breathing
    normal everday breathing
  39. during vigerous exercise,
    • exhailing requires muscular contraction that pull the rib cage in.
    • "costal breathing"
  40. The neural control of breathing
    • phrenic nerve- medulla to diaphragm
    • vagus nerve- lungs to medulla
    • respiratory center in medulla
  41. Chemical control of breathing
    • CO2 goes up, impulse is sent to the diaphragm (phrenic nerve). lungs inflate
    • Aveolar sacs inflate and the vagus nerve sends a message to turn it off. lungs deflate
  42. tidal air
    queit breathing. 500ml (CCs) or 1/2 litir of air
  43. vital capacity
    • how we breath with vigerous activity
    • varies with age sex and conditioning skills
  44. gasous exchange
    • in the lung and tissues. follows diffusion
    • 02 goes into blood and CO2 goes into alveolar sacs
  45. oxygen
    combines with hemoglobin when 02 os plentiful and will go where it is needed when low
  46. CO2
    • 20-30% is carried away from the tissure area.
    • 70% is converted into a bicarbonate amd pases through lungs and disolved in plasma. diffuses out of capillary into aveolar sac and then exhaled