shosh: neuro

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shosh114
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shosh: neuro
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2011-07-19 12:29:32
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  1. What is going on when Nissl substance gets pushed to neuron periphery?
    Wallerian regeneration
  2. GFAP
    Astrocyte marker
  3. Phagocytic cells of the CNS
    Microglia (of mesoderm origin)
  4. Cells that promote axonal regeneration
    Schwann cells
  5. Pacinian corpuscules
    Transmit information about vibration and position from the deep skin layers, ligaments, and joints
  6. Meissner's corpuscules
    Transmit fine touch sensation from hairless skin
  7. Where is NE synthesized?
    Locus ceruleus
  8. Where is DA synthesized?
    Ventral tegmentum and pars compacta of the substantia nigra
  9. Where is serotonin synthesized?
    Raphe nucleus
  10. Where is ACh synthesized?
    Basal nucleus of Meynert
  11. Where is GABA synthesized?
    Nucleus accumbens
  12. Where are hunger and satiety mediated?
    • Lateral area of hypothalamus mediates hunger
    • Ventromedial area of hypothalamus mediates satiety
    • Leptin inhibits the lateral area and activates the ventromedial area
  13. What mediates the circadian rhythm?
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
  14. Function of thalamus
    Relay station for sensory information heading to cerebral cortex
  15. VPL nucleus of thalamus
    Mediates sensation from the body
  16. VPM of thalamus
    Mediates sensation from the face
  17. Alpha synuclein inclusion bodies seen in...
    Parkinson's and Lewy body dementia
  18. What does hemiballismus indicate?
    • Loss of thalamic inhibition through the globus pallidus (i.e. contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion)
    • Can be due to lacunar stroke in a patient with HTN
  19. Atrophy of caudate seen in...?
    Huntington's
  20. Myoclonus v. dystonia
    • Myoclonus--sudden, brief muscle contration (e.g. hiccups)
    • Dystonia--sustained involuntary muscle contraction (e.g. torticollis, writer's cramp)
  21. What decreases an essential tremor?
    Alcohol (or beta blockers)
  22. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
    Loss of all laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid, which is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve
  23. Non-fluent aphasia with normal comprehension
    Broca's aphasia, usually due to a L MCA stroke, affecting the inferior frontal gyrus
  24. Fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
    Wernicke's aphasia, usually due to a left MCA stroke, affecting the superior temporal gyrus
  25. What do the vertebral arteries branch off of?
    Subclavians
  26. What do the MCAs branch off of?
    Internal carotids
  27. Most common location for a Berry aneurysm
    Anterior communicating artery
  28. Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysms
    Affects small vessels, associated with chronic hypertension
  29. What does the middle meningeal artery branch off of?
    Maxillary artery
  30. Most likely cause of a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebral hemispheres
    AVM
  31. What is amyloid angiopathy associated with?
    Recurrent hemorrhagic strokes
  32. Regions of the brain most vulnerable to ischemia
    Hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, watershed regions (between ACA and MCA, give rise to wedge-shaped infarcts, with proximal muscle weakness)
  33. What does the superior ophthalmic vein drain into?
    The cavernous sinus
  34. What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
    Foramen of Monro
  35. What connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventrical?
    Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
  36. Location of lumbar puncture
    Between L3-5
  37. Ligaments pierced in lumbar puncture
    Supraspinus, interspinus, ligamentum flavum
  38. Decussation of lateral corticospinal tract
    Caudal medulla
  39. Decussation of spinothalamic tract
    Anterior white commisure fibers in spinal cord
  40. Decusation of dorsal columns
    Medulla
  41. Fasciculation indications
    LMN lesion
  42. Werdnig-Hoffman disease
    • Destruction of LMNs in anterior horns of spinal cord
    • Floppy baby syndrome
    • Tongue fasciculations are an early sign
    • AR
  43. ALS
    • Combined UMN and LMN defects, with no sensory defects
    • Can be due to a mutation in SOD I
    • Exacerbated by betel nut ingestion
    • Commonly presents with fasciculations (LMN sign)
    • Treat with riluzole
  44. Friederich's ataxia
    • AR trinucleotide expansion disorder that leads to impaired mitochondrial function
    • Presents with ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, pes cavus, HCM, kyphoscoliosis
    • Similar presentation to B12 and vitamin E deficiency
  45. Level of C4 dermatome
    Shirt collar
  46. Level of T4 dermatome
    Nipples
  47. Level of T7 dermatome
    Xiphoid process
  48. Level of T10 dermatome
    Umbilicus
  49. Level of L1 dermatome
    Inguinal ligament
  50. Level of L4 dermatome
    Kneecaps
  51. Only cranial nerve that decussates immediately
    Trochlear
  52. Parinaud syndrome
    Paralysis of the conjugate vertical gaze, due to superior colliculus lesion (e.g. pineal gland tumor)
  53. Cranial nerve nuclei in the midbrain
    III and IV
  54. Cranial nerve nuclei in the pons
    V, VI, VII, and VIII
  55. Cranial nerve nuclei in the medulla
    IX, X, XI, and XII
  56. 3 nuclei of the vagal nerve
    • Nucleus solitarius mediates visceral sensory information (taste, baroreceptors, gut distension)
    • Nucleus ambiguus mediates motor innervation of the pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus
    • Dorsal motor nucleus sends autonomic innervation to the heart, lungs, and upper GI tract
  57. What passes through the foramen spinosum?
    Middle meningeal artery
  58. What passes through the optic canal?
    CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein
  59. What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
    CN III, IV, V1, and VI, the ophthalmic vein, and sympathetic fibers to the eye
  60. Which CN is most susceptible to damage in the cavernous sinus?
    CN VI, becuase it is free floating, and thin
  61. Muscle that opens the jaw is called ____ and is innervated by CN ____
    Lateral pterygoid, innervated by CN V3
  62. What innervates the tensor veli palatini?
    V3
  63. What happens to the macula if the retinal artery is occluded?
    It turns cherry red, because it has its own blood supply from the choroid artery
  64. Actions of the superior oblique
    • Abducts the eye
    • Intorts and depresses when the eye is adducted
  65. Medial longitudinal fasisculus lesion
    • Medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze
    • Nystagmus is abducting eye
    • Common in MS
  66. What does left hemianopia with macular sparing indicate?
    PCA stroke, lesioning visual cortex in occipital lobe
  67. What is apoE4 associated with?
    Late onset alzheimer's
  68. What gene has a protective effect against alzheimer's?
    ApoE2
  69. Labs show increased IgG in the CSF with oligoclonal bands on electrophoresis--what is the diagnosis?
    MS
  70. Virus that typically infects temporal lobes
    Herpes
  71. Brief, unilateral headache associated with periorbital pain, lacrimation, and rinorrhea
    • Cluster headache
    • Treat with sumatriptan
  72. Most likely cause of brain tumor at the grey-white junction
    Mets
  73. Tumor in cerebral hemispheres that stains positive for GFAP with histology that shows pleomorphic tumor cells surrounding areas of central necrosis and hemorrage
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  74. Tumor in parasaggital region with psammoma bodies
    Meningioma
  75. S-100 positive tumor found at angle between cerebellum and pons
    Schwannoma
  76. What disease are bilateral schwannomas associated with?
    NF-2
  77. Tumor in frontal lobe with chicken wire capilllary pattern and fried egg cells
    Oligodendroglioma
  78. Cerebellar tumor with rosette pattern and small blue cells on histology--what's it called, and how do you treat it?
    Medulloblastoma. Treat with radiation.
  79. Tumor found in fourth ventricle with perivascular pseudorosettes on histology
    Ependymoma
  80. Px presents with a cerebellar tumor, retinal angiomas, and polycythemia
    Von Hippel Lindau syndrome
  81. Tumor in an immunocompromised patient that stains positive for CD20
    Primary B cell lymphoma, probably due to EBV infection
  82. Duret hemorrhages
    Caused by rupture of the paramedian artery, due to caudal displacement of the brainstem

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