Card Set Information
What is going on when Nissl substance gets pushed to neuron periphery?
Phagocytic cells of the CNS
Microglia (of mesoderm origin)
Cells that promote axonal regeneration
Transmit information about vibration and position from the deep skin layers, ligaments, and joints
Transmit fine touch sensation from hairless skin
Where is NE synthesized?
Where is DA synthesized?
Ventral tegmentum and pars compacta of the substantia nigra
Where is serotonin synthesized?
Where is ACh synthesized?
Basal nucleus of Meynert
Where is GABA synthesized?
Where are hunger and satiety mediated?
Lateral area of hypothalamus mediates hunger
Ventromedial area of hypothalamus mediates satiety
Leptin inhibits the lateral area and activates the ventromedial area
What mediates the circadian rhythm?
Suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
Function of thalamus
Relay station for sensory information heading to cerebral cortex
VPL nucleus of thalamus
Mediates sensation from the body
VPM of thalamus
Mediates sensation from the face
Alpha synuclein inclusion bodies seen in...
Parkinson's and Lewy body dementia
What does hemiballismus indicate?
Loss of thalamic inhibition through the globus pallidus (i.e. contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion)
Can be due to lacunar stroke in a patient with HTN
Atrophy of caudate seen in...?
Myoclonus v. dystonia
Myoclonus--sudden, brief muscle contration (e.g. hiccups)
Dystonia--sustained involuntary muscle contraction (e.g. torticollis, writer's cramp)
What decreases an essential tremor?
Alcohol (or beta blockers)
Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
Loss of all laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid, which is innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve
Non-fluent aphasia with normal comprehension
Broca's aphasia, usually due to a L MCA stroke, affecting the inferior frontal gyrus
Fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
Wernicke's aphasia, usually due to a left MCA stroke, affecting the superior temporal gyrus
What do the vertebral arteries branch off of?
What do the MCAs branch off of?
Most common location for a Berry aneurysm
Anterior communicating artery
Affects small vessels, associated with chronic hypertension
What does the middle meningeal artery branch off of?
Most likely cause of a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebral hemispheres
What is amyloid angiopathy associated with?
Recurrent hemorrhagic strokes
Regions of the brain most vulnerable to ischemia
Hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, watershed regions (between ACA and MCA, give rise to wedge-shaped infarcts, with proximal muscle weakness)
What does the superior ophthalmic vein drain into?
The cavernous sinus
What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
Foramen of Monro
What connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventrical?
Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
Location of lumbar puncture
Ligaments pierced in lumbar puncture
Supraspinus, interspinus, ligamentum flavum
Decussation of lateral corticospinal tract
Decussation of spinothalamic tract
Anterior white commisure fibers in spinal cord
Decusation of dorsal columns
Destruction of LMNs in anterior horns of spinal cord
Floppy baby syndrome
Tongue fasciculations are an early sign
Combined UMN and LMN defects, with no sensory defects
Can be due to a mutation in SOD I
Exacerbated by betel nut ingestion
Commonly presents with fasciculations (LMN sign)
Treat with riluzole
AR trinucleotide expansion disorder that leads to impaired mitochondrial function
Presents with ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria, pes cavus, HCM, kyphoscoliosis
Similar presentation to B12 and vitamin E deficiency
Level of C4 dermatome
Level of T4 dermatome
Level of T7 dermatome
Level of T10 dermatome
Level of L1 dermatome
Level of L4 dermatome
Only cranial nerve that decussates immediately
Paralysis of the conjugate vertical gaze, due to superior colliculus lesion (e.g. pineal gland tumor)
Cranial nerve nuclei in the midbrain
III and IV
Cranial nerve nuclei in the pons
V, VI, VII, and VIII
Cranial nerve nuclei in the medulla
IX, X, XI, and XII
3 nuclei of the vagal nerve
mediates visceral sensory information (taste, baroreceptors, gut distension)
mediates motor innervation of the pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus
Dorsal motor nucleus
sends autonomic innervation to the heart, lungs, and upper GI tract
What passes through the foramen spinosum?
Middle meningeal artery
What passes through the optic canal?
CN II, ophthalmic artery, central retinal vein
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
CN III, IV, V1, and VI, the ophthalmic vein, and sympathetic fibers to the eye
Which CN is most susceptible to damage in the cavernous sinus?
CN VI, becuase it is free floating, and thin
Muscle that opens the jaw is called ____ and is innervated by CN ____
Lateral pterygoid, innervated by CN V3
What innervates the tensor veli palatini?
What happens to the macula if the retinal artery is occluded?
It turns cherry red, because it has its own blood supply from the choroid artery
Actions of the superior oblique
Abducts the eye
Intorts and depresses when the eye is adducted
Medial longitudinal fasisculus lesion
Medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze
Nystagmus is abducting eye
Common in MS
What does left hemianopia with macular sparing indicate?
PCA stroke, lesioning visual cortex in occipital lobe
What is apoE4 associated with?
Late onset alzheimer's
What gene has a protective effect against alzheimer's?
Labs show increased IgG in the CSF with oligoclonal bands on electrophoresis--what is the diagnosis?
Virus that typically infects temporal lobes
Brief, unilateral headache associated with periorbital pain, lacrimation, and rinorrhea
Treat with sumatriptan
Most likely cause of brain tumor at the grey-white junction
Tumor in cerebral hemispheres that stains positive for GFAP with histology that shows pleomorphic tumor cells surrounding areas of central necrosis and hemorrage
Tumor in parasaggital region with psammoma bodies
S-100 positive tumor found at angle between cerebellum and pons
What disease are bilateral schwannomas associated with?
Tumor in frontal lobe with chicken wire capilllary pattern and fried egg cells
Cerebellar tumor with rosette pattern and small blue cells on histology--what's it called, and how do you treat it?
Medulloblastoma. Treat with radiation.
Tumor found in fourth ventricle with perivascular pseudorosettes on histology
Px presents with a cerebellar tumor, retinal angiomas, and polycythemia
Von Hippel Lindau syndrome
Tumor in an immunocompromised patient that stains positive for CD20
Primary B cell lymphoma, probably due to EBV infection
Caused by rupture of the paramedian artery, due to caudal displacement of the brainstem