Exam 1: Key Terms

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Exam 1: Key Terms
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2011-07-18 14:17:39
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Week 1 exam 1: Key Terms
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  1. Define Infection Prevention & Control.
    Implementation of policies & procedures in hospitals & other health care facilities to minimize the spread of HAI to patients or other staff members.
  2. Define Host.
    Person or group who because of risk factors may be susceptible to disease or illness. Usually parasitic, the oraganism is nourished and harbored.
  3. Define Disinfection.
    Process by which pathogens, but not their spores, are destroyed. BACTERIOCIDAL
  4. Define Contamination.
    Condition of being soiled, stained, touched or exposed to harmful agents by the entry of infections or toxic material into a previously clean or sterile environment; making an object potentially unsafe for use as intended.
  5. Define SAFETY REMINDER DEVICE. (SRD)
    Used to immobilize a patient; referred to as a restraint.
  6. Define MICROORGANISMS.
    Any tiny (usually microscopic) entity capable of carrying on living processes; bacteria, fungi, protozoa, & viruses.
  7. What is Double Bagging?
    Infection control practice of placing contaminated items into another bag that is clean and held outisde the isolation room by a second staff member.
  8. Define Syncope.
    Loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain; Fainting.
  9. Define VERTIGO.
    Sensation that outer world is revolving about oneself. (Dizziness)
  10. What is ABDuction?
    Moving an extremity away from the midline of the body.
  11. Define BIOTERRORISM.
    Creating fear and threat using biologic agents.
  12. Define SPORE.
    A reproductive cell of microorganisms such as fungi or protozoa; highly resistant to heat & chemicals.
  13. What is ADDuction?
    Moving an extremity towards the axis of the body.
  14. What are Standard Precautions?
    Set of guidelines set forth by CDC to reduce risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens. Promotes handwashing and use of PPE when appropriate for patient contact.
  15. Define STERILIZATION.
    ALL microorganisms including their spores are destroyed. *SURGICAL ASEPSIS*
  16. Define Extension.
    Movement allowed by certain joints that increase the angle between two adjoining bones.
  17. Define FOWLER'S POSTION.
    Posture assumed by patient when HOB is raised to 45o to 60o
  18. Define Hyperextension.
    Postion of maximum extension or abnormal stretching.
  19. Define IMMOBILITY.
    Inability to move around freely.
  20. Define JOINT.
    Connections between bones.
  21. Define HOLISTIC.
    Pertaining to the total patient care, considers physical, emotional, social economic & spiritual needs of the person.
  22. Define ILLNESS.
    Abnormal process in which the social, emotional or intellectual condition & functon of person is diminished or impaired.
  23. Define Hygiene.
    Health & maintenence. Preserving health and preventing disease.
  24. Define Labia Majora.
    Two large folds of the tissue extending from the mons pubis to the perineal floor; lip.
  25. Deifine Labia Minora.
    Smaller fold of tissue covered by the labia majora.
  26. Define VECTOR.
    A living carrier for transmission of microorganisms.
  27. Define Vehicle.
    The means by which organisms are carried about.
  28. Define Virulent.
    Power to produce disease. Very pathogenic or rapidly progressive condition.
  29. Define ANTISEPTIC.
    Inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. (BACTERIOSTATIC)
  30. Define ASEPSIS.
    Free of pathogenic microorganisms.
  31. Define CARRIER.
    Person or animal who harbors & spreads an organism, causing disease in others, but does not itself become ill.
  32. Define SURGICAL ASEPSIS.
    "STERILE TECHNIQUE" destroys all microorganisms and their spores.
  33. Define HEALTH.
    Condition of physical, mental, & social well-being. Absence of disease or other abnormal conditions.
  34. Define HOLISTIC HEALTH CARE
    A system of total patient care that considers physical, emotional, social economic, & spiritual needs of the person. Response to illness & effect of illness on the person's ability to meet self-care needs.
  35. Define SEMI-FOWLER'S.
    Position assumed by patient in bed raised to about 30o and foot of bed is raised slightly.
  36. Define PRONE.
    Lying face down on the abdomen.
  37. Define SUPINATION
    Palms of the hand are turned up.
  38. Define Trendelenburg.
    Position in which patient is lying supine w/ head lower than the body & legs elevated on an incline.
  39. Define MEDICAL ASEPSIS
    "CLEAN TECHNIQUE"- inhibit the growth & spread of pathogenic microorganisms.
  40. Define CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL & PREVENTION. (CDC)
    Federal agency that provides facilities & services for investigation, identification, prevention & control of disease.
  41. Define DORSIFLEXION.
    Backward upward bending of fingers, wrist, foot or toes.
  42. Define SUPINE.
    Lying face upward.
  43. Define Health Care Associated Infection. (HAI)
    Infection acquired in the hospital. (Nasocomial Infection)
  44. Define RESERVOIR.
    Any natural habitat of a microorganism that promotes growth & reproduction.
  45. Define BODY MECHANICS.
    Physiologic study of muscular actions & functions maintaining posture of body.
  46. Define DORSAL.
    Lying on the back.
  47. Define FOMITE.
    Nonliving material that may host & transfer pathogenic microorganisms.
  48. Define MOBILITY.
    Person's ability to move around freely in his/her environment.
  49. Define PRONATION.
    Palm of the hand turned down.
  50. Define PATHOGENIC.
    Capable of causing disease.
  51. Define PRONE.
    Lying face down on the abdomen.
  52. Define FEBRILE.
    Body Temp. above normal.
  53. Define RANGE OF MOTION (ROM)
    Normal movement that a joint is capable of making. Body action involving the muscles, joints, & natural directional movements.
  54. Define SIMS' POSITION.
    Lying on left side w/ right knee drawn upward toward the chest & abdomen allowed to fall forward.
  55. Define ORTHOPNEIC.
    Position assumed by patient, sitting up in bed at a 90o
  56. Define LITHOTOMY.
    Incision of a duct or organ. esp. the bladder for removal of a stone.
  57. Define ALIGNMENT
    Relationship of various body parts to one another.
  58. Define Sentinel Event.
    Unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury or risk thereof.
  59. Define EPIDEMIC
    Disease that emerges rapidly.
  60. Define EXOGENOUS
    Outside the body
  61. Define ENDOGENOUS
    Growing within the body

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