F&E

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
94420
Filename:
F&E
Updated:
2011-07-18 14:46:07
Tags:
signs symptoms fluids electrolytes
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s/s of F&E
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  1. hypophosphatemia
    • irritability
    • bleeding
    • inflammation
    • bone and muscle pain
    • infection risk
    • numbness
    • generalized weakness
  2. hyperphosphatemia
    • cardiac irregularities
    • hyperreflexia
    • eating poorly
    • muscle weakness
    • positive Trousseau's and Chvosteks signs
    • visual impairment
  3. hypomagnesemia
    • seizures
    • tetany
    • anorexia and arrythmias
    • rapid heart rate
    • vomiting
    • emotional liability
    • deep tendon reflexes increased
  4. hypermagnesemia
    • reflexes decreased
    • ECG changes bradycardia and hypotension
    • nausea and vomiting
    • apperance flushed
    • lethargy, drowsiness and coma
  5. hyponatremia
    • rapid pulse
    • apprehension
    • dizziness
    • abdominal cramping
    • tachycardia
    • cool, clammy skin
    • muscle weakness
    • headache
    • increased GI motility
    • nausea, diarrhea
  6. hypernatremia
    • diminished cardiac output
    • pulmonary edema
    • extreme thirst
    • dry and flushed skin
    • dry sticky tongue
    • agitation, confusion, lethargy
    • weakness and muscle twitching
    • dry skin
    • decreased urine output
  7. hypokalemia
    • weak, thready pulse
    • muscle weakness
    • decreased bowel sounds
    • ventricular dysrhythmias
    • decreased breath sounds
    • shallow resp
    • lethargy, weakness, confusion, coma
    • decreased GI motility
    • polyuria
    • dilute urine
  8. hyperkalemia
    • irreg HR, often slow
    • anxiety
    • abdominal cramps
    • peaked T waves on ECG
    • hypotension
    • irritability
    • muscle twitches, tetany, seizures
    • positive Trousseaus and Chvostek's signs
    • increased GI motility
  9. hypocalcemia
    • decreased heart rate
    • numbness and tingling of fingers
    • muscle cramps
    • decreased cardiac output
    • hypotension
    • irritability
    • muscle twitches, tetany, seizures
    • positive Trousseaus and Chvostek's signs
    • increased GI motility
  10. hypercalcemia
    • changes in HR and BP
    • anorexia
    • hypoactive reflexes
    • flank pain
    • decreased level of consciousness
    • decreased coagulation
    • decreased respiration
    • muscle weakness
    • increased urine production
    • decreased GI motility
  11. hypochloridemia
    • agitation, irritability
    • hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and tetany
    • muscle cramps and hypertonicity
    • slow, shallow respirations and weakness
    • seizures and coma
    • arrythmias
  12. Respiratory acidosis
    • confusion
    • dizziness
    • lethargy
    • headache
    • warm flushed skin
    • muscular twitching
    • PH<7.35
    • PaCO2>45mm Hg
    • PaO2 <80 mm Hg
    • HCO3 >26
  13. Respiratory alkalosis
    • dizziness
    • confusion
    • tachypnea tingling of extremities
    • pH>7.45
    • PaCO2 <35 mm Hg
    • HCO3 <22
  14. metabolic acidosis
    • headache
    • lethargy
    • confusion
    • tachypenea with deep respirations
    • abdominal cramps
    • flushed skin
    • pH <7.35
    • PaCO2 normal
    • HCO3 <22
  15. metabolic alkalosis
    • dizziness
    • dsrhythmias
    • numbness
    • tingling fingers and toes
    • muscle cramps
    • pH>7.45
    • PaCO2 normal
    • HCO3 >26
  16. Acute hemolytic reaction
    • Stop transfusion
    • treat shock
    • obtain blood samples
    • send urine sample to lab
    • insert indwelling cath
  17. Febrile nonhemolytic
    • stop transfusion
    • give antipyretics as prescribed
    • DO NOT RESTART TRANSFUSION
  18. Mild allergic reaction
    • give antihistamine as directed
    • do not restart transfusion if fever or pulmonary symptoms develop
  19. anaphylactic
    • Stop transfusion
    • initiate CPR if indicated
    • have epinephrine ready for injection
    • do not restart transfusion
  20. Circulatory overload
    • place clint upright with feet in dependent position
    • Administer prescribed diuretics, oxygen, morphine
    • phlebotomy may be indicated
  21. Sepsis
    • obtain culture of clients blood and send bag with remaining blood to transfusion service
    • treat septicemia as directed

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