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Hierarchy of Organization
- 1. Organisms
- 2. Organ systems
- 3. Organs
- 4. Tissues
- 5. Cells
The study of structure of an organism and its parts.
The study of function of an organism’s structural parts.
Form Fits Function
- 1. Anatomy
- 2. Physiology
- 3. Natural selection refines biological structure by determining the most effective variations for an organism in its environment (evolution)
- An integrated group of similar cells that perform a specific function (specialization).
- 4 main categories of tissues: Epithelial tissue , Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
- 1. Outer layer of skin (renewed every 2 weeks).
- 2. Lining of heart, blood vessels, digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
Sparse population of cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. Blood (liquid), Adipose (gel-like), Cartilage (semi-solid), Bone (solid).
Loose connective tissues
(Dermis) - binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place; strong and elastic.
- 1. Pads and insulates the body.
- 2. Source of energy.
- 1. Transports substances throughout body.
- 2. Plays a major role in immunity.
Attach muscles to bones
Join bones together at joints
- 1. Strong, but flexible
- 2. Avascular - slow to heal
- 3. Found in ears & nose; at bone ends, between vertebra forming cushioning /shock absorbing pads.
- 1. Strong without being brittle
- 2. Matrix of collagen fibers hardened with calcium salts.
- Consists of bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells known as fibers.
- Each cell contains specialized proteins that contract when stimulated by a nerve.
- Three types of muscle cells: 1) Skeletal 2) Cardiac 3) Smooth
- 1. Attached to bones by tendons.
- 2. Voluntary in function
- 3. Striated (striped).
- Exercise does not increase number of muscle fibers, but makes those present bigger.
- 1. Heart.
- 2. Involuntary in function.
- 3. Striated (stripped).
- Cardiac muscle cells are branched and joined together in order to allow the contraction signal to travel quickly forming a coordinated beat.
- 1. Walls of organs.
- 2. Involuntary in function.
- 3. Not striated
- Contracts more slowly than skeletal muscle, but can remain contracted longer.
- 1. Enables organisms to receive stimuli, process, stimuli, and produce an appropriate motor output.
- 2. Neuron: basic unit of nervous tissue.
- 3. Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which connect them to all parts of the body.
Basic unit of nervous tissue.
- two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function.
- Example: tissues of the small intestine (epithelial, connective, and smooth muscle).
- Teams of organs working together to perform vital body functions
- Either physically connected (digestive) or dispersed throughout the body (endocrine).
- Failure of any organ system jeopardizes the entire organism due to interdependence.
- Organisms continuously exchange chemicals and energy with their surroundings
- *Nutrients in, wastes out.* Cells must be bathed in a watery solution.
- To maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment regardless of the external environment.
- 1. Body temperature (mammals).
- 2. Blood pH, salinity, concentration (sharks).
- 3. Glucose levels (hummingbirds).
- The end product inhibits the process.
- 1. Most common mechanism of homeostatic control in animals (body temperature).
- The end product intensifies the process.
- 1. Labor leading up to childbirth (hormones stimulate contractions which stimulate more hormones).
- 1. Endotherms
- 2. Ectotherms
- 3. Vasoconstriction
- 4. Vasodilation
- 5. Fever
- Organisms that maintain constant body temperature regardless of surrounding environment.
- AKA: homeotherms, warm-blooded
- Examples: mammals & birds
- Organisms that cannot main-tain constant body temperature due to the surrounding environment.
- AKA: poikilotherms, cold-bloodedExamples: inverts, fish, amphibians, reptiles
Blood vessels near the body’s surface constrict and muscles con-tract causing shiver.
Blood vessels near the body’s surface dilate and sweat glands activate to cool.
An abnormally high body temp, usually the result of infection.
- Control of gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes.
- 1. Osmoconformers
- 2. Osmoregulators
Internal/external environments of marine invertebrates have similar water concentrations.
Internal/external environments are actively regulated in marine vertebrates, freshwater vertebrates, and terrestrial animals.
Function of Urinary System
Forms, excretes waste-carrying urine while regulating the amount of water and solutes in fluids.
Main processing centers of urine.
Fine tubes within the internal structure of the kidney.
Functional unit of the kidney.
Tube that leads from kidney to bladder.
Holds urine until excreted from body.
Tube that empties the bladder into the external environment.
- Fluid extracted by the excretory system from blood.
- a. Urine produced from filtrate.
- b. Wastes concentrated.
- c. Water, solutes returned to blood.
Body design tapered at both ends.
- 1. Kindney
- 2. Ureter
- 3. Bladder
- 4. Sphincter
- 5. Urethra