Bio 004, College of the Desert

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Mattyj1388
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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2011-07-18 17:30:47
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Chapter21 COD Unifying Concepts Animal Form Function
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  1. Hierarchy of Organization
    • 1. Organisms
    • 2. Organ systems
    • 3. Organs
    • 4. Tissues
    • 5. Cells
  2. Anatomy
    The study of structure of an organism and its parts.
  3. Physiology
    The study of function of an organism’s structural parts.
  4. Form Fits Function
    • 1. Anatomy
    • 2. Physiology
    • 3. Natural selection refines biological structure by determining the most effective variations for an organism in its environment (evolution)
  5. Tissues
    • An integrated group of similar cells that perform a specific function (specialization).
    • 4 main categories of tissues: Epithelial tissue , Connective tissue, Muscle tissue, Nervous tissue
  6. Epithelial tissues
    • 1. Outer layer of skin (renewed every 2 weeks).
    • 2. Lining of heart, blood vessels, digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
  7. Connective tissues
    Sparse population of cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. Blood (liquid), Adipose (gel-like), Cartilage (semi-solid), Bone (solid).
  8. Loose connective tissues
    (Dermis) - binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place; strong and elastic.
  9. Adipose tissue
    • (Fat)
    • 1. Pads and insulates the body.
    • 2. Source of energy.
  10. Blood
    • 1. Transports substances throughout body.
    • 2. Plays a major role in immunity.
  11. Tendons
    Attach muscles to bones
  12. Ligaments
    Join bones together at joints
  13. Cartilage
    • 1. Strong, but flexible
    • 2. Avascular - slow to heal
    • 3. Found in ears & nose; at bone ends, between vertebra forming cushioning /shock absorbing pads.
  14. Bone
    • 1. Strong without being brittle
    • 2. Matrix of collagen fibers hardened with calcium salts.
  15. Muscle tissue
    • Consists of bundles of long, thin, cylindrical cells known as fibers.
    • Each cell contains specialized proteins that contract when stimulated by a nerve.
    • Three types of muscle cells: 1) Skeletal 2) Cardiac 3) Smooth
  16. Skeletal muscles
    • 1. Attached to bones by tendons.
    • 2. Voluntary in function
    • 3. Striated (striped).
    • Exercise does not increase number of muscle fibers, but makes those present bigger.
  17. Cardiac muscles
    • 1. Heart.
    • 2. Involuntary in function.
    • 3. Striated (stripped).
    • Cardiac muscle cells are branched and joined together in order to allow the contraction signal to travel quickly forming a coordinated beat.
  18. Smooth muscles
    • 1. Walls of organs.
    • 2. Involuntary in function.
    • 3. Not striated
    • Contracts more slowly than skeletal muscle, but can remain contracted longer.
  19. Nervous tissues
    • 1. Enables organisms to receive stimuli, process, stimuli, and produce an appropriate motor output.
    • 2. Neuron: basic unit of nervous tissue.
    • 3. Found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves which connect them to all parts of the body.
  20. Neuron
    Basic unit of nervous tissue.
  21. Organ
    • two or more tissues packaged into one working unit that performs a specific function.
    • Example: tissues of the small intestine (epithelial, connective, and smooth muscle).
  22. Organ systems
    • Teams of organs working together to perform vital body functions
    • Either physically connected (digestive) or dispersed throughout the body (endocrine).
    • Failure of any organ system jeopardizes the entire organism due to interdependence.
  23. Open Systems
    • Organisms continuously exchange chemicals and energy with their surroundings
    • *Nutrients in, wastes out.* Cells must be bathed in a watery solution.
  24. Homeostasis
    • To maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment regardless of the external environment.
    • 1. Body temperature (mammals).
    • 2. Blood pH, salinity, concentration (sharks).
    • 3. Glucose levels (hummingbirds).
  25. Negative feedback
    • The end product inhibits the process.
    • 1. Most common mechanism of homeostatic control in animals (body temperature).
  26. Positive feedback
    • The end product intensifies the process.
    • 1. Labor leading up to childbirth (hormones stimulate contractions which stimulate more hormones).
  27. Thermoregulation
    • 1. Endotherms
    • 2. Ectotherms
    • 3. Vasoconstriction
    • 4. Vasodilation
    • 5. Fever
  28. Endotherms
    • Organisms that maintain constant body temperature regardless of surrounding environment.
    • AKA: homeotherms, warm-blooded
    • Examples: mammals & birds
  29. Ectotherms
    • Organisms that cannot main-tain constant body temperature due to the surrounding environment.
    • AKA: poikilotherms, cold-bloodedExamples: inverts, fish, amphibians, reptiles
  30. Vasoconstriction
    Blood vessels near the body’s surface constrict and muscles con-tract causing shiver.
  31. Vasodilation
    Blood vessels near the body’s surface dilate and sweat glands activate to cool.
  32. Fever
    An abnormally high body temp, usually the result of infection.
  33. Osmoregulation
    • Control of gain or loss of water and dissolved solutes.
    • 1. Osmoconformers
    • 2. Osmoregulators
  34. Osmoconformers
    Internal/external environments of marine invertebrates have similar water concentrations.
  35. Osmoregulators
    Internal/external environments are actively regulated in marine vertebrates, freshwater vertebrates, and terrestrial animals.
  36. Function of Urinary System
    Forms, excretes waste-carrying urine while regulating the amount of water and solutes in fluids.
  37. Kidneys
    Main processing centers of urine.
  38. Tubules
    Fine tubes within the internal structure of the kidney.
  39. Nephron
    Functional unit of the kidney.
  40. Ureter
    Tube that leads from kidney to bladder.
  41. Bladder
    Holds urine until excreted from body.
  42. Urethra
    Tube that empties the bladder into the external environment.
  43. Filtrate
    • Fluid extracted by the excretory system from blood.
    • a. Urine produced from filtrate.
    • b. Wastes concentrated.
    • c. Water, solutes returned to blood.
  44. Fusiform
    Body design tapered at both ends.
    • 1. Kindney
    • 2. Ureter
    • 3. Bladder
    • 4. Sphincter
    • 5. Urethra

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