shosh: neuro drugs
Card Set Information
shosh: neuro drugs
Alpha agonist, use for glaucoma
Betal blockers, use for glaucoma
Prostaglandin, use for glaucoma
Causes darkening of iris
Opoid analgesic, opens K+ channels and closes Ca++ channels at mu receptors
Causes addiction, respiratory depression, contipation, and miosis
Mu receptor antagonist, use to treat opiate overdose
Partial agonist at mu receptors, use for analgesia
Causes less respiratory depression than opiates, but can cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient is also on an opiate (e.g. morphine, codeine, heroin)
Weak opiate agonist, inhibits serotonin and NE reuptake
Use to treat chronic pain
Major side effect is seizures in epileptic patients
3 first line drugs for tonic clonic seizures
Phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid
First line anti-epileptic in children and pregnant women
First line drug for trigeminal neuralgia
First line drug for status epilepticus
Benzos in acute cases
Phenytoin after patient has been stabilized
Uses and side effects of carbamazepine
Tonic clonic seizures, trigeminal neuralgia
Use for absence seizures
Causes GI distress, urticaria, and Steven-Johnson syndrome
Side effects of phenytoin
Fetal hydantoin syndrome
Side effects of valproic acid
Hepatotoxicity (can be fatal)
Neural tube defects in fetuses
Anti-epileptic, blocks Na channels and upregulates GABA action
Use for all but absence seizures and status epilepticus
Side effects include sedation, weight loss, and kidney stones
What condition contraindicates barbiturate use?
Porphyrias, because they induce ala synthase
CYP 450 inducers
CYP 450 inhibitors
Short acting benzos
Decreased solubility in blood for an anesthetic indicates
Rapid induction and recovery
Increased solubility in the blood for an anesthetic indicates
Long induction and recovery times, but high potency
Inhaled anesthetic with high solubility (so slow onset and high potency)
-what is the toxicity?
Side effect of enflurane
Cause and treatment of malignant hyperthermia
Caused by a mutation in the ryanodine receptor that allows Ca to flood the muscles in response to inhaled anesthetics.
Presents with fever, rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis after surgery.
Treat with dantrolene
Why does thiopental have a rapid recovery time?
Redistribution of the drug into fat and skeletal muscle
Mechanism, use, and side effects of ketamine
Blocks NMDA receptors and stimulates the CV system.
Good dissociative anesthetic for traumatic field injury.
Causes disorientation and hallucinations
Rapid anesthetic for short procedures
Side effect of bupivacaine
Why is epinephrine given with local anesthetics?
Causes local vasoconstriction, traps drug in target tissues
2 uses of dantrolene
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
(blocks release of Ca from SR)
COMT inhibitors, prevent dopamine breakdown.
Use for Parkinson's
Selective MAO B inhibitor, prevents dopamine breakdown.
Use for Parkinson's.
Dopamine agonists (4)
Use of benztropine in Parkinson's
Antimuscarinic drug, can help control tremor and rigidity, but has little effect on bradykinesia
Vitamin that increases dopamine metabolism
B6 (ask Parkinson's patients if they are taking multivitamins)
Serotonin agonist, causes vasoconstriction, inhibits activation of the trigeminal nerve
Short half life
Use to treat acute migraines and cluster headaches
Major side effect is coronary vasospasm