Aphasia I Test 3
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Rapid deceleration or acceleration of the head/brain due to striking or being struck by an object or force.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
What the incidence/year of TBI?
7 million (most are car accidents)
Males are _________ as likely to receive TBI...the ratio is ____ males to 1 female.
What are the risk factors for TBI?
- Type A Personality
TBI in which the meninges are violated; torn, lacerated, etc.
Penetrating (Open-head injury)
What are the 2 types of Penetrating TBI?
What type of penetrating TBI occurs from blows received in "altercations" & accidents where skull fractures w/ impacted bone fragments are possible?
What type of penetrating TBI occurs from mediums such as bullets and shrapnel creating a "pressure wave" which "explodes" inside the head which will likely displace tissue to a severe degree? (Projectile may carry foreign matter into the brain tissue)
Blow to head which injures brain but doesn't violate the meninges (meninges remain intact).
Non-Penetrating (Closed-head injury)
What are the 2 main types of Non-penetrating TBI?
- Non-acceleration injuries (fixed head)
- Acceleration injuries (moving head)
Type of Non-penetrating TBI where restrained head is struck by a moving object resulting from deformation of the skull being driven into the brain (skull may return to original shape).
Non-Acceleration injury (fixed head)
Trauma that makes an impression at the site of the blow resulting from a non-acceleration (fixed head) injury.
This occurs as a result of a non-acceleration injury (fixed head) if slow moving force w/ large surface area forces skull to chance from egg to round shaped & brain expands due to volume/pressure shift w/in skull. There's more diffuse damage due to brain tissue shifting/tearing w/in cranium.
Type of Non-penetrating TBI where unrestrained head is struck by a moving object/force or moving head strikes stationary object or head rapidly changes directions (whiplash, shaken-baby syndrome).
Acceleration injuries (moving head)
Type of acceleration injury (moving head) where force is applied on a line that passes through axis of the head; brain forced against inside of cranium at point on side where force came from (coup injury).
Injuries to brain tissue at the site of the blow usually resulting from blows to front of head.
Linear acceleration injury to brain tissue on side opposite from direction of blow usually resulting from blows to back of head--injury is to the frontal areas of the brain. (brain "bounces" off side opposite from direction of the blow/force).
Linear acceleration trauma referring to both coup & contre coup causes focal damage to meninges & cortex (force applied to head is "translated" into injuries).
Type of acceleration injury (moving head) where force is applied to head off axis (globe) causing head to rotate then rebound; damage from shearing/twising forces in axial structures bet/supportive tissue & fiber tracts around corpus callosum, internal capsule, & brainstem.
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