ECHO

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Author:
liukuf
ID:
94599
Filename:
ECHO
Updated:
2011-07-23 08:23:29
Tags:
Chamber size fxn
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Description:
ECHO review
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  1. Normal LVEDD
    • Men 4.2-5.9 cm
    • Women 3.9-5.3 cm
  2. Mildly increased LVEDD
    • Men 6.0-6.3 cm
    • Women 5.4-5.7 cm
  3. Mod increased LVEDD
    • Men 6.4-6.8
    • Women 5.8-6.1
  4. Severe increased LVEDD
    • Men >= 6.9
    • Women >= 6.2
  5. LV ED volume normal
    • Men 67-155 mL
    • Women 56-104 mL
    • Index 35-75 mL/m2
  6. LV ED volume mild increased
    • Men 156-178 mL
    • Women 105-117 mL
    • Index 76-86 mL/m2
  7. LV EDD mod increased
    • Men 179-201 mL
    • Women 118-130 mL
    • Index 87-96 mL/m2
  8. LV EDD severe increase
    • Men >= 202 mL
    • Women >= 131 mL
    • Index >= 97 mL/m2
  9. LV ESD normal
    2.1-4.0 cm
  10. LV ES vol normal
    • Men 22-58 mL
    • Women 19-49 mL
  11. EF
    • Normal >= 55%
    • Mild abn 45-54%
    • Mod abn 30-44%
    • Sev abn <30%
  12. LV wall thickness nl
    • 0.6-1.0 mL men
    • 0.6-0.9 mL women
  13. LV wall thickness mild abn
    • 1.0-1.3 mL men
    • 1.0-1.2 mL women
  14. LV wall thickness mod abn
    • 1.4-1.6 mL men
    • 1.3-1.5 mL women
  15. LV wall thicness sev abn
    • >= 1.7 mL men
    • >=1.6 mL women
  16. LV mass (2D) normal
    • Men 96-200g or <103g/m2
    • Women 66-150g or <89g/m2
  17. LV mass mild abn
    • Men 201-227 g
    • Women 151-171 g
  18. LV mass mod abn
    • Men 228-254 g
    • Women 172-192 g
  19. LV mass sev abn
    • Men >=225g or >=131g/m2
    • Women >=193g or >=113g/m2
  20. LA diameter women
    • Normal 2.7-3.8 cm
    • Mild 3.9-4.2 cm
    • Mod 4.3-4.6 cm
    • Sev >=4.7 cm
  21. LA diameter men
    • Normal 3-4 cm
    • Mild 4.2-4.6 cm
    • Mod 4.7-5.2 cm
    • Sev >=5.2 cm
  22. LA vol index normal
    22 +- 6 mL/m2
  23. LA vol index mild abn
    29-33 mL/m2
  24. LA vol index mod abn
    34-39 mL/m2
  25. LA vol index severe abn
    >= 40 mL/m2
  26. In patients with normal ER does septal or LV filling pressures.
    Lateral tiisue E/e' or e'/a' best corellation with normal EF. E/e' ratio is not accurate as an index of filling pressures in normal subjects or in patients with heavy MAC, MV disease and constrictive pericarditis.
  27. septal e' < 8mm or lateral e' indicates
    LV diastolic dysfunction
  28. RV EDd normal
    2.7-3.3 cm
  29. RV EDd mild abn
    3.4-3.7 cm
  30. RV EDd mod abn
    3.8-4.1 cm
  31. RV EDd sev abn
    >=4.2 cm
  32. RV free wall thickness normal
    <0.5 cm
  33. TAPSE abnormal
    <1.7 cm
  34. PA diameter normal
    Normal 1.5-2.1 cm
  35. PA diameter mild abn
    2.2-2.5 cm
  36. PA diameter mod abn
    2.6-2.9 cm
  37. PA diameter sev abn
    >=3.0 cm
  38. Pulm vein indicators for increased LVEDP
    • PV a vel > 0.35
    • PV a dur - MV A dur >20ms
  39. What is normal LVEDP
    3-12 mmHg
  40. Holodiastolic reversal flow in descending aorta but not abd aorta indicates.
    • Mod to severe AR.
    • Reversal in both c/w severe AR
  41. Increased LV relative wall thickness with normal LV mass index.
    Concentric Remodeling
  42. Elevated LV mass index with high relative wall thickness.
    Concentric Hypertrophy
  43. Elevated LV mass index
    • Men >115 g/m2
    • Women >95 g/m3
  44. dP/dT normal
    • >1200. mmHg/sec
    • Abn <1000
  45. Mitral E wave velocity is expected to be low in MS. (T or F)
    False. In mitral stenosis, the peak velocity of the mitral E wave is expected to be high
  46. Strain Rate
    • SR = (V1 − V2)/L
    • strain rate (SR) is defined as the change in velocity between two points divided by the distance between the two points at the end of systole (L).
  47. Relative wall thickness
    • 2 x PW thickness / EDd
    • Abn >0.42-indicates remodeling/dilation
  48. Parameters indicate RV dysfxn
    TAPSE
    TASV(tricuspid annular systolic velocity)
    RIMP
    RV S' (Peak RV Tissue doppler Velocity)
    • TAPSE <1.7cm
    • TASV<20cm/sec
    • RIMP or Tei-index <0.4 pulse, <0.55 pulse tissue
    • RV S' <10 cm/s
  49. Abnormal IMP indicating LV /RV dysfxn.
    Normal LIMP and RIMP
    • LIMP normal <0.4
    • RIMP normal <0.4-0.5
  50. Left atrial volume calc (LAV)
    0.85 [Area1 x Area2 / shorter atrial length]
  51. LAVI normal
    • Normal <29
    • mild 29-33
    • Mod 34-39
    • Sev >39
  52. LV mass abn/hypertrophy
    • >115g/m2 men
    • >95g/m2 women
  53. Normal RV parameters
    *Tricuspid annular descent
    *RV end-diastolic area
    *RV end-systolic area
    *RV fractional change
    • The tricuspid annular descent is normally in the range of 1.5–2 cm.
    • RV end-diastolic area in normal subjects ranges between 11 and 28 cm2
    • *RV end-systolic area is between 7.5 and 16 cm2.
    • *RV fractional area change is normally between 32% and 60%.
  54. Normal RV Dimensions
    • RV Dimensions
    • Basal RV diameter, cm
    • 2.0–2.8
    • Mid-RV diameter, cm
    • 2.7–3.3
    • Basal-to-apical length, cm
    • 7.1–7.9

    • Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) diameters
    • Above aortic valve, cm
    • 2.5–2.9
    • Above pulmonic valve, cm
    • 1.7–2.3

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