BIO 102

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BIO 102
2011-07-21 00:16:17
Exam flashcards

Flashcards for Bio 102 Exam 1
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  1. 1.
    All animals
    are heterotrophic
  2. 1.
    Typical animal embryos have ________,
    or external cell layer, and ________, which lines the digestive tract.
    an ectoderm . . . an endoderm
  3. 1.
    During the Cambrian explosion
    approximately 542 million years ago,
    • animals rapidly
    • diversified in the oceans over a period of about 15 million years.
  4. 1.
    Most of the animals alive today
    • are
    • invertebrates.
  5. Which of the following animals displays radial
    • a
    • sea anemone
  6. 1.
    A true coelom is best described as
    • a body cavity that
    • is fully lined by tissue derived from the mesoderm.
  7. 1.
    A dog's head is at its ________ end and
    its belly is its ________ surface.
    • anterior
    • . . . ventral
  8. 1.
    A typical sponge is best described as
    • a
    • sessile suspension feeder with no true tissues or body symmetry.
  9. 1.
    Tapeworms are similar to fungi because
    • they
    • feed by absorption.
  10. 1.
    You find a wormlike, soft-bodied adult
    animal in a mud flat. It is bilaterally symmetrical, is segmented, has a true
    coelom, and has a complete digestive tract. Based on these characteristics,
    what phylum does the animal represent?
  11. 1.
    Animals that are segmented and have
    jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum
  12. 1.
    The most numerous, diverse, and
    widespread animals are the
  13. 1.
    Which of the following groups has a
    series of similar segments that make up most of the body?
  14. 1.
    Which of the following groups includes
    both spiders and horseshoe crabs?
  15. 1.
    Most adult insects have three major
    body parts or sections. They are the
    • Head,
    • thorax, and abdomen
  16. 1.
    The flexible, longitudinal rod that is
    located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called
  17. 1.
    Which of the following features is
    unique to chordates?
    • a
    • notochord
  18. 1.
    Which of the following is an
    invertebrate chordate?
  19. 1.
    Human skin color likely represents a
    locally adapted compromise between
    • the need to block
    • UV radiation that destroys folate and the need to synthesize vitamin D.
  20. 1.
    ________ is thought to have played a
    crucial role in the evolution of human speech.
    • The
    • FOXP2 gene
  21. 1.
    All humans alive today have inherited
    their mitochondrial DNA from some individual female common ancestor. Studies
    indicate this woman probably lived about ________ years ago, when fossil
    evidence indicates Homo sapiens
    was restricted to ________.
    • 180,000
    • . . . Africa
  22. 1.
    Fossil and genetic evidence strongly
    support the idea that modern humans
    • all
    • derive from a single African lineage that spread from there into other parts of
    • the world starting about 60,000 years
  23. 1.
    According to the fossil record, the
    genus Homo first arose in
  24. 1.
    Hominid fossil footprints that are
    obviously bipedal date to about ________ years ago.
    • 3.5
    • million
  25. Human DNA and chimpanzee DNA
    • differ
    • by about 1%.
  26. 1.
    Our closest relatives, the ________,
    exhibit several behaviors that closely resemble those of humans.
  27. 1.
    ________ spend almost all of their time
    on the ground, instead of in trees.
  28. 1.
    The forward-facing eyes shared by all
    primates help them in
    • depth perception
    • as they navigate through forests.
  29. 1.
    Which of the following organisms is a
  30. Mammals
    • have
    • hair and mammary glands.
  31. 1.
    Which of the following adaptations
    allowed reptiles to complete their life cycles on land?
    • an
    • amniotic egg
  32. 1.
    The most ancestral extant tetrapods are
    ________ derived from ________.
    • amphibians
    • . . . lobe-finned fishes
  33. 1.
    The first vertebrate with a head and
    skull probably resembled a
  34. 1.
    Mammals exhibit many examples of traits
    that are shared among species that are adapted to life in similar environments
    and ecological niches. Examples include several species scattered around the
    world that resemble anteaters. Like anteaters, they have long snouts and
    tongues, stout claws, and other features that suit them to eating ants and
    termites. Yet these species are only distantly related, and each has an
    ancestor that does not fit the "anteater stereotype." These are
    examples of
    • convergent
    • evolution.
  35. 1.
    The duck-billed platypus and other
    monotremes differ from other mammals in that they
    • lay
    • eggs
  36. 1.
    Which of the following is most likely
    to be responsible if, when your blood sugar level rises, the level of sugar
    goes back down?
    • a
    • homeostatic mechanism based on negative feedback
  37. 1.
    • is the maintenance of a constant
    • internal state.
  38. 1.
    Fingernails are a component of the
    ________ system.
  39. 1.
    The respiratory system includes all of
    the following structures except the
  40. 1.
    Which of the following tissues can
    currently be produced artificially and has been successfully used in human
  41. 1.
    Which type of tissue forms a
    communication and coordination system within the body?
  42. 1.
    Smooth muscle is responsible for
    involuntary body activities.
  43. 1.
    What kind of connective tissue has an
    extracellular liquid matrix called plasma?
  44. 1.
    Which of the following is a type of
    connective tissue?
    • adipose
    • tissue
  45. 1.
    Epithelial tissues
    • cover
    • both external and internal body surfaces.
  46. 1.
    Which of the following is a major
    category of animal tissue?
  47. 1.
    Structure in the living world is
    organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following lists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
    • molecule,
    • cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
  48. An organ system consists of
    • a
    • group of coordinated tissues.
  49. 1.
    A physiologist is a biologist who
    • the
    • function of body parts.
  50. The connection between structure and ________ is
    a basic concept of biology
  51. 1. Which of the following is associated
    with a reduced risk of
    cardiovascular disease?
    high levels of HDL
  52. 1. Which of the following diseases is
    associated with obesity?
    cardiovascular disease
  53. 1. A food label indicates that the
    contents of a product contain 12 grams of total carbohydrate per serving, 7
    grams of sugar per serving (simple carbohydrate), and 2 grams of fiber per
    serving. How many grams of digestible complex carbohydrate are there per serving?
  54. 1. The essential amino acids
    • must be obtained from the food
    • we eat.
  55. 1. A material that must be ingested in
    preassembled form because the animal cannot synthesize it is
    an essential nutrient.
  56. 1. Organisms suffering from
    malnourishment have a diet deficient in
    one or more essential nutrients
  57. 1. All animals must obtain ________
    from outside sources.
    fuel to power body activities
  58. 1. Absorption of water is a major
    function of the
  59. 1. Nutrients absorbed by the intestines
    move directly to the liver, which
    converts excess glucose to glycogen
  60. 1. Which of the following nutrients is
    digested only after it reaches the small intestine?
  61. 1. Which enzyme breaks large
    polypeptides into smaller polypeptides?
  62. 1. Bile produced in the liver is stored
    in the ________ before entering the intestine.
  63. 1. Which of the following is important in
    the digestion of lipids?
    bile salts
  64. 1. What is the main digestive function
    of the pancreas?
    to produce digestive enzymes and a bicarbonate buffer
  65. 1. Epithelial cells lining the
    intestine have surface projections that increase nutrient absorption. These
    projections are called
  66. 1. In the digestive system, most
    nutrient absorption occurs in the
    small intestine.
  67. 1. Most gastric ulcers are caused by
    spiral-shaped bacteria
  68. 1. Heartburn is usually caused by the
    • reflux of chyme from the stomach into the lower
    • esophagus
  69. 1. The function of the pyloric
    sphincter is to
    • periodically release chyme into the duodenum in
    • periodic squirts
  70. The stomach mixes
    food with secretions of the stomach wall to form
  71. 1. The secretory parietal cells of the
    stomach are responsible for producing
    hydrochloric acid
  72. The mucous-producing
    cells that line the stomach
    lubricate and protect the stomach lining
  73. 1. The epiglottis is a
    • flap of cartilage that flips down to cover the entry
    • to the trachea during swallowing
  74. 1.
    Human saliva performs all of the following functions except
    hydrolyzing proteins
  75. 1. The digestion of carbohydrates
    begins in the mouth. What is the name given to the starch-digesting enzyme
    secreted by salivary glands?
  76. 1. Digestion begins in the
    oral cavity
  77. 1. Regulation of the passage of food
    from the stomach is accomplished by
  78. 1. Smooth muscle propels food through
    the alimentary canal by a process called
  79. 1. Which of the following correctly
    lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last
    contact with food matter?
    • oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
    • intestine, large intestine
  80. 1. An animal digestive tract that
    consists of two openings (a mouth and anus) is called
    the alimentary canal.
  81. 1. Through digestion, nucleic acids are
    broken down into
    fatty acids
  82. 1. Through digestion, polysaccharides
    are broken down into
  83. 1. What happens to nutrient
    macromolecules in an animal's digestive tract?
    • Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers
    • before absorption.
  84. 1. During which of the following stages
    of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract?
  85. 1. Digestion is the
    • chemical and mechanical breakdown of food for
    • absorption into the body.
  86. 1. Most animals are
    bulk feeders
  87. 1. Which of the following act mainly to
    regulate salt and water balance?
  88. 1. Which of the following is a function
    of epinephrine?
    release of glucose from the liver
  89. 1. Which of the following glands
    secretes hormones that enable the body to respond to stress?
  90. 1. Which of the following glands is
    located nearest the kidneys?
    adrenal glands
  91. 1. What is the metabolic abnormality
    that underlies the characteristic symptoms of diabetes mellitus?
    • an inability of the body's cells to absorb enough
    • glucose from the blood
  92. 1. Which of the following hormones
    causes glucose release and, consequently, a rise in the concentration of sugar
    in the blood?
  93. 1. Which of the following statements
    best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon?
    They are antagonistic hormones.
  94. 1. Which of the following pairs of
    hormones have opposite effects?
    parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
  95. 1. Which of the following processes
    depends on the presence of appropriate calcium levels in the blood and
    interstitial fluid?
    transmission of nerve signals from cell to cell
  96. 1. Which gland requires the element
    iodine to produce its hormones?
  97. 1. Which of the following hormones is
    released by neurosecretory cells extending from the hypothalamus?
  98. 1. Which of the following statements
    about glands and hormones is true?
    The anterior pituitary is composed of endocrine cells.
  99. 1. Which of the following is an
    endocrine gland that raises blood calcium levels?
  100. 1. Which of the following options
    correctly pairs an endocrine gland or hormone with an aspect of metabolism that
    it regulates?
    insulin = regulates blood glucose levels
  101. 1. Which of the following statements about
    steroid hormones is true?
    • Steroid hormones bind to specific receptor proteins
    • and the complex acts as a gene activator
  102. 1. Neurosecretory cells
    participate in the nervous and endocrine systems.
  103. 1. Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized
    amino acids.
  104. 1. Which of the following options lists the
    sequence of events in the cell-signaling process in the correct order?
    • recepetion,
    • transduction, cell response
  105. 1. Why must some hormones bind to a
    membrane receptor on a target cell's surface in order to activate it?
    because they cannot cross cell membranes
  106. 1. The result of binding a signal
    molecule to its receptor is
    signal transduction.
  107. 1. A target cell that is affected by a
    particular steroid hormone would be expected to have
    • an intracellular receptor protein that binds the
    • hormone
  108. 1. Steroid hormones are lipids made from
  109. 1. Compared to the endocrine system,
    the nervous system
    • has a faster response, but the signal does not last as
    • long.
  110. 1. Hormones are chemicals produced by
    the endocrine system that
    • regulate a variety of body functions, such as
    • metabolism