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  1. Results of fission
    Mother cell goes into two identical daughter cells
  2. What is F pilus?
    Bridge between bacteria
  3. Clone =
    Population of genetically identical cells
  4. Colony =
    Visible mass of cells
  5. G0
    Cells not actively replicating
  6. G1
    Growth and metabalims
  7. S
    Synthesis and replication
  8. G2
    Prep for mitosis
  9. Cytokenisis
    Generation of new cell
  10. Mitosis produces
    2 identical diploid (2n) cells
  11. Meiosis
    Produces 4 non identical haploid (n) cells
  12. Holliday structure
    Where crossing over occurs.. then they will move down and more will cross at a different spot.
  13. Chiasma
    Touching point where exchange was made � only in meiosis
  14. Sexual reproduction � carried out twice to get daughter cells with half of the info
  15. Mitosis produces
    • In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is organized into
    • chromosomes.
  16. The Cellular Environment
    • � Cytoplasm�the inside of a cell
    • � Water
    • � Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Molecules
    • � Carbohydrates
    • � Lipids
    • � Proteins, including enzymes
    • � Membrane�made of lipids and proteins
    • � Organelles
  17. Chromosomes
    Double-stranded DNA with associated proteins and sometimes RNA
  18. Prokaryotic cells contain what kind of chromosomes?
    one circular chromosome plus smaller plasmids
  19. Most eukaryotic cells contain what kind of chromosomes?
    several large linear chromosomes
  20. Cell Division in Prokaryotes: Fission
    • A mother cell divides to produce two daughter cells.
    • The mother cell�s chromosome is duplicated prior to fission.
    • Each daughter cell receives one copy of the chromosome.
  21. Clone�
    a population of genetically identical cells.
  22. Colony�
    a visible mass of cells.
  23. Cells, the basic units of all living things, are enclosed by
    membranes.
  24. Chromosomes, the cellular structures that carry the genes, are composed of
    DNA, RNA, and protein.
  25. In eukaryotes, chromosomes are contained within a membrane-bounded nucleus;
    in prokaryotes they are not.
  26. Eukaryotic cells possess complex systems of internal membranes as well as membranous organelles such as
    mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the endoplasmic reticulum.
  27. Mitosis
    When eukaryotic cells divide, they distribute their genetic material equally and exactly to their offspring.
  28. Components of mitosis:
    • � Microtubules and Centrioles
    • � Spindle
    • � Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)
    • � Centrosomes and centrioles
    • � Pericentriolar material
    • � Aster
  29. As a cell enters mitosis, its duplicated chromosomes
    condense into rod-shaped bodies (prophase).
  30. As mitosis progresses, the chromosomes migrate to the
    equatorial plane of the cell (metaphase).
  31. Later in mitosis, the centromere that holds the sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosome together splits, and the sisters chromatids
    separate (or disjoin) from each other (anaphase)
  32. As mitosis comes to an end, the chromosomes
    decondense and a nuclear membrane reforms around them (telophase).
  33. Each daughter cell produced by mitosis and cytokinesis has the same set of chromosomes; thus, daughter cells are genetically identical.
  34. Meiosis
    Sexual reproduction involves a mechanism that reduces the number of chromosomes by half.

    • Prophase I: Leptonema
    • � Chromosomes condense
    • � Each chromosome has two sister chromatids
  35. Prophase I: Zygonema
    • � Synapsis of homologous chromosomes
    • � Synaptonemal complex
  36. Prophase I: Pachynema
    • � Chromosomes condense further
    • � Bivalent
    • � Tetrad
    • � Crossing over occurs
  37. Prophase I: Diplonema
    � Paired chromosomes separate slightly but are in contact as chiasmata
  38. Prophase I: Diakinesis
    • � Nuclear envelope fragements
    • � Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores
    • � Chromosomes move to central plane in pairs
  39. Metaphase I
    • � Paired chromosomes are oriented toward opposite poles
    • � Terminalization: chiasmata move toward telomeres
  40. Anaphase I
    • � Chromosome disjunction (separation of paired chromosomes)
    • � Separated homologues move toward opposite poles
  41. Telophase I
    • � Chromosomes reach the poles; nuclei forms
    • � Spindle apparatus is disassembled
    • � Daughter cells separated by membranes
    • � Chromosomes decondense
    • � Each chromosome still has two sister chromatids
  42. Prophase II
    • � Chromosomes condense
    • � Chromosomes attach to a new spindle apparatus
    • � Sister chromatids are attached to spindle fibers from opposite poles
  43. Metaphase II
    � Chromosomes align at equatorial plane
  44. Anaphase II
    • � Centromeres split
    • � Chromatid disjunction�sister chromatids move toward opposite poles
  45. Telophase II
    • � Separated chromatids gather at poles; daughter nuclei form
    • � Each chromatid is now called a chromosome
    • � Each daughter nucleus contains a haploid set of chromosomes
  46. Outcome of meiosis?
    • � Daughter cells are NOT genetically identical
    • � Maternal and paternal homologues synapse, then disjoin. Different pairs disjoin independently.
    • � Homologous chromosomes exchange material by crossing over
  47. Diploid eukaryotic cells form haploid cells by
    meiosis, a process involving one round of chromosome duplication followed by two cell divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II).
  48. During meiosis I,
    homologous chromosomes pair (synapse), exchange material (cross over), and separate (disjoin) from each other.
  49. During meiosis II,
    chromatids disjoin from each other.
  50. In many organisms, the haploid products of meiosis develop directly into
    gametes.
  51. In plants, the products of meiosis divide mitotically to form haploid
    gametophytes.
  52. The gametophytic phase of a plant�s life cycle alternates with the sporophytic phase, which is diploid; meiosis occurs in the sporophyte.
  53. Genetics in the Laboratory: An Introduction to Some Model Research Organisms
    Geneticists focus their research on microorganisms, plants, and animals well suited to experimentation.
  54. Eschericia coli,a Bacterium
    • � ?Rod-shaped bacterium
    • � ?Molecular Genetics
    • � ?4.6 ?106base pairs
    • � ?4288 protein-coding genes
    • � ?Single circular chromosome
    • � ?Bacteriophages
  55. Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Baker�s Yeast
    • � ?Unicellular fungus
    • � ?16 linear chromosomes
    • � ?12 ?106base pairs
    • � ?6268 genes
    • � ?Reproduces sexually and asexually
  56. Drosophila melanogaster,a Fruit Fly
    • � ?Insect
    • � ?Anatomically complex
    • � ?170 ?106base pairs
    • � ?13,792 genes
  57. Caenorhabditis elegans,a Round Worm
    • � ?Model for animal development
    • � ?Hermaphroditic
    • � ?100 ?106base pairs
    • � ?20,512 genes
  58. Mus musculus,the Mouse
    • � ?Biomedical research
    • � ?Comparative genomics
    • � ?2.9 ?109base pairs
    • � ?25,396 genes
  59. Danio rerio,the Zebrafish
    • � ?Model for vertebrate development
    • � ?Transparent eggs; external fertilization
    • � ?1.6 ?109base pairs
    • � ?23,524 genes
  60. Arabidopsis thaliana,a Fast-growing Plant
    • � ?Self-fertilizing
    • � ?Model for agriculturally significant plants
    • � ?157?106base pairs
    • � ?27,706 genes
  61. Homo sapiens,Our Own Species
    • � ?Cell culture
    • � ?DNA Cloning
    • � ?The Human Genome Project
    • � ?3.2 ?109base pairs
    • � ?20,000 to 25,000 genes
  62. The bacterium E. coliis the premier prokaryote for
    genetic analysis.
  63. Model eukaryotes include
    yeast (S. cerevisiae), a fruit fly (D. melanogaster), a round worm (C. elegans), the mouse (M. musculus), the zebrafish (D. rerio), and a fast-growing plant (A. thaliana).
  64. Techniques such as ____ and _____have made it possible to study the genetic material of human beings and many other organisms.
    cell culture and DNA cloning

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Author:
vkellogg
ID:
94605
Filename:
2.txt
Updated:
2011-07-20 03:10:53
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Bio Genetics
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Chapter 2
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