Bio Exam 2

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Bio Exam 2
2010-03-07 16:23:53
exam 2

BIO100 Exam 2 Study Guide
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  1. Understand the idea that matter (stuff like trees and cells and people) and energy can not be created or destroyed. However, they can change forms (convert sunlight into chemical energy)
  2. Understand how energy flows through biological systems.
    Sun => photosynthesis => carbs/fats/proteins (foods) =>Cellular Respiration => ATP
  3. Know the different trophic levels and understand how loss/overabundance of an organism at one level might affect organisms at other levels
  4. 1) Understand when energy will be consumed by a chemical reaction
    2) And when energy will be released
    • 1) reactants possess less energy than products
    • 2) reactants possess more energy than products
  5. Understand how you experimentally determined the calories in food in the lab
  6. What is ATP
    ATP is the fuel used to perform cellular work such as muscle contraction, nerve signaling (your brain) and staying warm (we are warm blooded). ATP use is directly related to metabolism. The higher your metabolism, the more ATP your body will use, and the more calories you will need to eat. The easiest way to think about this is physical activity: if you exercise your body will need extra food (sugars/calories) to fuel your muscles. In your muscles, mitochondria will use sugars/fats to produce ATP for contraction. a consequence of making ATP is O2 use and CO2production. You can measure metabolism by measuring CO2 output because it is directly related to ATP production.
  7. Know the basic anatomy of plants and what a plant needs to survive
    CO2, sunlight, freedom from pests, water, nutrients from soil, as well as glucose and O2 since plants also undergo cellular respiration to make ATP.
  8. Understand how water is transported in plants
  9. 1) understand why plants make flowers
    2) and fruit
    3) and how plants reproduce
    • 1) to attract pollinators
    • 2) to assist in seed dispersal
    • 3) Stamen = male reproductive organ (pollen is equivalent to sperm), Carpel = female reproductive organ (seed is equivalent to sperm) and insects transport pollen from stamen to carpel. Some flowers have both male and female reproductive organs.
  10. Know the major parts of a seed and their function
    • seed coat = protection
    • endosperm = nutrients
    • germ = embryo
  11. Understand the basic reaction of photosynthesis
    H2O + CO2 => Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2
  12. Where does photosynthesis take place
    in chloroplasts, which are small organelles found inside plant cells and some bacterial cells. Plants exchange gases (CO2 and O2) through openings in the leaves called stomata
  13. 1) Understand how chloroplasts absorb light
    2) why leaves are typically green
    • 1) they use pigments like chlorophyll
    • 2) shlorophyll absorbs blue and red light, but reflects green light
  14. Why leave change color in the fall?
    because as the days get shorter it becomes too expensive for plants to make chlorophyll. Without chlorophyll, other pigments are now visible and these pigments tend to absorb blues and reflect yellows, oranges, and reds
  15. how is light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis
    light is absorbed by chlorophyll and the light energy is converted to chemical energy in ATP and NADPH. Both ATP and NADPH will be used in the Calvin Cycle to produce glucose. H2O is split into H and O2; the O2 is released.
  16. How does the Calvin Cycle use CO2 to make glucose
    The process uses the energy (ATP and NADPH) produced in the light reactions to drive the Calvin Cycle.
  17. Know how plants use the glucose they make
    they use it for things like (1) starch - a storage form of sugar and (2) cellulose (cell walls) and (3) oils.
  18. Understand how desert plants conserve water
    • 1) small leaves to limit water loss through the leaves
    • 2) converting leaves to thorns to prevent animals from stealing their stored water
    • 3) opening stomata at night and closing during the day to prevent water loss during the hottest part of the day
    • 4) water storage, storing large amounts of water to survive long periods of no rain
  19. Metabolism
    the set of reactions in our bodies that use energy. Cells get their energy from the foods we eat (carbs, fats and proteins)
  20. Cellular respiration
    this is how cells (all cells including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals), make ATP from sugars (and fats and proteins). Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 => H2O + CO2. Energy released by breaking the bonds in glucose is used to make ATP. ADP + P => ATP
  21. Understand how your metabolism changes if you are resting versus active.
    activity requires more ATP, to make ATP, cells need more glucose and more O. To get these molecules to cells, your breathing rate and heart rate will increase
  22. Know the basic anatomy of the respiratory system and understand how O and CO are exchanged in the lungs (by diffusion from high concentration to low)
  23. Understand why asthma makes it difficult to breathe
    inflammation constricts the airways
  24. Cellular respiration
    takes place in the cytoplasm (glycolysis) and mitochondria (Kreb's cycle and electron transport)
  25. Glycolysis
    converts glucose (6C) to pyruvate (3C) breaking a bond in glucose releases energy that is used to make ATP
  26. Kreb's Cycle & Electron Transport
    Converts pyruvate (3C) to carbon dioxide (1C). Breaking the bonds in pyruvate releases energy that is used to make ATP. The production of ATP is like water flowing through a dam to turn a turbine to produce electricity or wind turning a windmill to make electricity
  27. How mitochondrial diseases affect people and how they can be inherited
  28. How muscles contract
    sarcomeres shorten = contraction
  29. Muscles need ATP to contract
    thus, increased physical activity will require more ATP to make ATP, cells need a food source (sugars or fats) and O2. Breathing rate and heart rate increase in order to carry these molecules to muscle cells
  30. three energy sources used to muscle during exercise
    • 1) 0-10 seconds: Creatine Phosphate and stored ATP.
    • 2) Seconds to minutes: Glucose (glycogen) used to fuel glycolysis and anaerobic respiration. Breathing rate increases slower than the need for ATP. Thus, much of the energy used during the first minutes of exercise is produced by anaerobic respiration, which does not use O2.
    • 3) Minutes to Hours: Glucose and Fats are used to fuel aerobic respiration. Breathing rate has increased to meet O2 demands. Fats can only be used to fuel aerobic respiration. Thus, in order to burn fat, you must exercise for >15 minutes and exercise must be aerobic
  31. anaerobic respiration => pyruvate => lactic acid => ATP
    anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of O. In yeast, anaerobic respiration results in the production of alcohol (fermentation). This is the basis for making beer and wine.
  32. Understand the difference between of fast and slow muscle fibers
  33. Understand how the heart can work so hard with fatigue
  34. Free radicals
    produced by cellular respiration and can cause cellular damage and aging. Anti-oxidants such as vitamin C help eliminate free radicals and are thought to protect cells from oxidative damage.