Micro- Test 1

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bbeckers88
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94726
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Micro- Test 1
Updated:
2011-07-20 20:31:44
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Micro Test
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Micro- Test 1
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  1. Neutrophils
    • PMNs
    • phagocytic cells
    • inate and adaptive immunity
    • needs to be activated
    • greater killing power than macrophages
    • found in blood
  2. Macrophages
    • kupffer cells in liver
    • microglial cells in CNS
    • found in spleen, bone marrow, GI, CT
    • inate and adaptive immunity
    • found in tissue
  3. functions of macrophages
    • phagocytosis
    • antigen presentation
    • activated by cytokines, then move into tissue
  4. dendritic cells
    • phagocytic early in life
    • adaptive immunity
    • -antigen presentation
  5. T lymphocytes
    • from thymus
    • long lived
  6. T helper cells
    coordinate immune response
  7. T cytotoxic cells
    destroy infected cell
  8. B lymphocytes
    from fetal liver and bone marrow
  9. plasma cell
    • activated B lymphocyte
    • antibody production
  10. Memory B cells
    • formed to antigens during first exposure
    • long lived
    • allow for quick second response
  11. natural killer cells
    • no need to activate
    • cytotoxic, not phagocytic, punch holes in cell membrane
    • innate immunity
    • kill infected cell
    • MCH 1- recognize self cells
  12. Cytokines
    • Chemical messengers
    • induce other cells
    • stimulate antigen dependent and independant cells
    • induces chemotaxis and diapedesis
  13. Lymphokines
    • made by lymphocytes
    • MAF- macrophage activation factor
    • MIF- macrophage migration inhibition factor
  14. interleukens
    for communication b/t WBCs
  15. tumor necrosis factor
    attack of tumor cells
  16. interferons
    • interfere with viral replication
    • activate: T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, antibody production
  17. transforming growth factor
    • Beta- most potent form
    • growth inhibitor
  18. peripheral lymph organs
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • tonsils
    • appendix
    • MALT
    • SALT
  19. Thymus
    • immunogenesis in children
    • most active in kids, largest at puberty
    • eventually replaced by fat
    • matures T- cells
  20. Thymic education
    • differentiation of thymocytes
    • CD4- T helper cells
    • CD8- T cytotoxic cells
  21. Types of T helper cells
    • TH-1- cell mediated immune response
    • TH-2- activate B cells to produce antibodies
  22. T cytotoxic cells
    destroy infected cells and tumor cells
  23. Thymic selection
    • positive- functional, not autoreactive, self MHC restricted
    • negative- bad, apoptosis
  24. innate immunity- first line of defense
    not part of immune system
  25. skin- first line of defense
    • most difficult to penetrate
    • outer layer sloughs off, taking microbes with
    • mechanical barrier
  26. mucous membranes- first line of defense
    • mechanical barrier
    • cilia in respiratory tract propels microbes to throat
    • intestinal tract enzymes
    • urine= flushing out urinary tract
  27. Antimicrobial substances- first line of defense
    • sweat- salty residue
    • lysozyme- tears, saliva, mucous (degrades peptidoglycan only found in bacteria)
    • peroxidase- stomach
  28. normal flora- first line of defense
    • bacteria- good for you
    • protective
    • competitive exclusion of pathogens
  29. Toll-like receptors (sensor systems)
    • on host cells
    • recognize microbessends cytokines to activate immune cells
  30. complement (sensor systems)
    • proteins always present in blood
    • assist other immune cells
    • 1. enhance macrophage ability
    • 2. mast cell degranulation
    • 3. punch holes in bacteria
  31. steps in inflammation
    • 1. injury/invasion
    • -cells communicate trauma via cytokines
    • -chemotaxis draws macrophages
    • -cmoplement proteins sense invasion
    • 2. dilation of blood vessels
    • -allows cells to leave blood
    • -causes swelling, pain, redness, increase temperature
    • 3. fever
    • -induced by cytokines
    • -increase temp kills bacteria
  32. Adaptive immunity
    • 1. specificity
    • -recognition of foreign substance
    • macromolecule or bound hapten
    • 2. self recognition
    • -distinguish self from non-self
    • 3. Memory
    • -following 1st exposure
    • -quick second response
  33. Humoral response
    • eliminates extracellular antigens
    • B cells differentiate into plasma cells, produce antibodies
  34. cell mediated response
    • deals with antigens in a host cell
    • antigen bound in MHC complex, presented to T cell, then becomes active
  35. Structure of Antigens
    carrier molecule with epitopes which interact with antibodies on T cells
  36. Origin of Antigens
    • exogenous- from outside
    • endogenous- from within the cell
  37. Antigens
    • can be cross reactive- activate/bind to the same antibody
    • tolerant to self-antigens
  38. Superantigens
    • bind to sides of binding site turning on T cell indefinitly
    • T cells go on rampage causing system wide inflammation
  39. Agglutination
    cellular clumping
  40. precipitation
    particulate clumping
  41. antibody/antigen complex
    recognized by phagocytic cells and gobbled up
  42. antitoxin
    an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
  43. opsonin
    binding enhancer for phagocytosis
  44. structure of antibodies
    • 2 heavy and 2 light chains
    • Fab- antigen binding site, top 1/2 is variable
    • Fc- complement binding site, not variable, determines antibody class
  45. IgG
    most abundant antibodyagglutinates and precipitatesmultiple bind to antigen, compleent binds to Fc, cascade begins
  46. IgM
    • largest class
    • can't enter tissue
    • first class produced
    • most effective at activating cascade
    • fetus produces
  47. IgA
    • in body secretions
    • monomer in bloos, dimer in secretions
  48. IgE
    • usually bound to mast cells
    • allergens, histamin release
  49. IgD
    • low levels
    • unknown function
  50. Major Histacompatability Complex
    • MHC shows self cell
    • can display non-self proteins
    • MCH-1- detects abnormalities within cell, found on all cells, presents abnromal protein if cell is bad
    • MCH-2- presents ingested antigen
  51. Complement
    • always circulating in blood
    • once activated, attach to cell surface, forming MAC
    • inate and adaptive immunity
    • if uncontrolled can cause damage
  52. Complement binding causes:
    • prepares for phagocytosis
    • releases active substances
    • lyses cell
  53. Classical complement cascade
    antibody MUST bind to antigen first
  54. Alternative complement cascade
    does not require antibody
  55. Primary immune response
    • 1 week+ for adaptive response
    • IgM first produced then IgG
    • surface antibodies on B cells recognize antigen, then form plasma cells
    • some T cell independent B cells imediately create antibodies, most require T-helper cell activation
  56. Secondary immune response
    • memory cells are activated quickly after 2nd exposure
    • level of IgG higher and lasts longer
    • less antigen needed to cause response
    • memory may persist for years
  57. Vaccination
    • Edward Jenner- small pox- 1796
    • vaccination= cow
  58. active immunity
    immunity aquired after an exposure to an antigen
  59. Passive immunity
    aquired by recieving antibodies from another animal
  60. Artificial active immunity= vaccination
  61. inactivated vaccine
    unable to replicate
  62. live attenuated vaccine
    • weakened form of microbe
    • unable to cause disease
    • can replicate, causing symptoms
  63. Subunit vaccines
    • key protein fragments from antigen
    • cant replicate
  64. immune injuries= hypersensetivities
  65. Type 1 hypersensetivity
    • IgE mediated- binds to mast cells
    • fast
    • 2nd exposure, mast cells degranulate, releasing histamines
    • anaphalaxis, asthma, hay fever
  66. Type 2 hypersensetivities
    • IgG mediated
    • cytotoxic
    • cell lysis/phagocytosis
    • hematological
    • Rh factor
  67. Type 3 hypersensetivities
    • antigen-antibody complex left in blood
    • lodge in capillaries
    • activate complement, leading to vasodilation
    • attract monocytes, cause tissue death
  68. Type 4 hypersensetivities
    • cell mediated
    • memory cells activated, release cytokines, recruit other cells
    • host cell is destroyed
    • chlamydia, TB
  69. Tollerance
    • self recognition of cells
    • developed as fetus, thymic education
    • can bome tolerant of other things thru life (food)
  70. Autoimmunity
    • immune system reacts to self cells
    • production of autoantibodies
    • triggers can be: infection, drugs, bacteria, hormones, immune breakdown
  71. Titer
    shows amount of antibodies present
  72. ELISA
    • coat well with antigen
    • add patient serum
    • add antibody/enzyme specific for patient antibody
    • add substrate
    • if color change patient positive for antibody
  73. Immunodiffusion
    • agar plate
    • visible line forms as antibodies diffuse= positive test
  74. complement fixation
    • RBSc from sheep
    • positive if no lysis occurs
  75. capsular swelling
    Quellung reaction
  76. neutralization
    antitoxins neutralize toxin
  77. Schick test
    • in vivo test
    • intracutaneous skin test
    • distringuishes resistant from susceptable
    • no reaction= antibodies
  78. Tuberculin skin test
    • not antibody mediated
    • cell mediated
    • type 4 hypersensetivity

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