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- Kc = Products/Reactants
- write the coeeficient of each reactant as an exponant.
Effect of Adding Reactant
Increase in the number of collisions.
- The effect of adding reactant shifts the equilibrium
- toward the products
- The rate of the forward reaction increases to form
- more HF product such that equilibrium concentrations are equal to Kc again.
Effect of Adding Product
- RAte of reverse reaction increases.
- Shifts Equilibium towrards the reactants.
Effect of removing reactant?
- Decreases rate of forward reaction.
- Shifts equilibrium towards reactants.
Effect of removing Product
- Decreases the rate of reverse reaction.
- Pushes equilibrium towards products.
Decrease in volume
equlibrium shifts towards the fewer number of moles.
Shifts reaction equilibrium towards the greater number of moles.
Exothermic reaction heat added
shift towards the reactants
Exothermic heat taken away
shifts towards products
Endothermic HEat added
Shifts to products
Endothermic heat loss
Shifts towards the reactant
Isotopes with numbers over 84 are radioactive because?
Too many protons in one place make it unstable.
- a helium nucleus,2 protons and 2 neutrons, a
- mass number of 4 and a charge of 2+
- a low energy compared to other radiation particles
- travels through air 2-4 cm
- .05 tissue penetration depth
- Shielding paper or clothing.
- Radium 226
- particle is a high-energy electron
- has a mass number of 0 and a charge of 1-
- 200-300 cm through air.
- 4-5 mm tissue depth
- Shielding heavy clothing gloves lab coat
- Carbon 14
- Has a mass number of 0 and a charge of 0.
- Is emitted from an unstable nucleus to give a more stable, lower energy nucleus.
- 500m through the air
- 50 cm or more penetration
- shielding lead or thick concrete
- Thechnetium 99m
- is not detected under 25 rem
- involves a decrease in white blood cells at 100 rem
- includes nausea and fatigue over 100 rem
- reduces white-cell count to zero over 300 rem and leads to death in 50% of people at 500 rem
- 2 atoms form 1
- Very high Heat
- Sun and Stars
- Splitting of atom
- Very High Energy
- Nuclear power plants