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  1. using a dam at high tide then relasing the water at low tide turing turbines
    tidal power
  2. generated infrequently and bays enviroment is affected
    tidal power problems
  3. blades that generate electricty with high and low tide.
    windmill submerged turbine
  4. energy is variable and instalation cost is high
    problems with windmill submerged
  5. offshore funeling waves through a system of barries and waves pass over turbines
    wave power
  6. this may alter beaches and by damaged by large waves
    probles with wave power
  7. this type traps pocket of air bc waves enter structure
    wave power compression
  8. may alter coastling deposition and erosion rates
    wave compression probles
  9. use floats by rising and falling waves to harness energy
    wave power
  10. damaged by large storms and not that much power
    wave power floats
  11. using the gyre systems to turn turbines, need strong currents
    current power
  12. can be damaged by large storms, output would vary
    current power probles
  13. use warm ocean water to evaporate a liquid and generate steam, then cold to a liquid
    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  14. changes ocean level temps and not efficient
    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) problems
  15. larger organisms are ofter WHAT? by temp variations
  16. surface gyres, upswelling of deep ocean water, enso events la nina
    affects small marine life
  17. pressure rapidly increase with
  18. rapid changes in depth can cause
    narcosis "the bends"
  19. how to large animals surive great depth
    store oxygen in their tissue
  20. what affects plant distribution
  21. the layer of sea water lit by the sun
    the photic zone
  22. 350 ft near wat
    500 ft in
    2000ft in
    • coastline
    • central gyre
    • clearest know ocean water
  23. the area of good light avg 250 ft
    the euphotic zone
  24. the area of no light
    the aphotic zone
  25. many organisms are affected if it changes
  26. if a organism have a higher or lower salinity it may
  27. it can adapt overtime in salinity change
    osmotic regulators
  28. lighter than ocean water
  29. heaver than ocean water
    lives on the bottom
  30. simiular to ocean water
  31. what type of organisms have to compensate for excess weight
    skelletons or shells
  32. adaptation to obtain
    natural buoyancy
  33. whale and seals have
  34. sharks and fish have
  35. some fish have what so they can alter density
    swim blatters
  36. what is fairly abundent at all levels for plant and algal life
    carbon dioxide
  37. in deep water areas that are anoxic, lil animal life, what plays major role
    anaerobic bacteria
  38. the entire water enviroment
    pelagic zone
  39. water above the shelf
    neritic zone
  40. water beyond the shelf
    oceanic zone
  41. 0 600 ft
  42. 600- 3000 ft
  43. 3000- 9000 ft
  44. 9000- to bottom
  45. sea floor enviroment
    benthic zone
  46. above high tide
  47. below low tide level
  48. bathyal
    contiental slope
  49. rise and abyssal plains
  50. trenches
  51. free floating mostly single celled organisms
  52. animals that can swim effectvely
  53. organisms that live on or are attached to the sea floor, some are moble many are not
    benthic organisms
  54. algae phytoplankton, autotrophs, the primary producers
    level 1 food chain
  55. herbiaores(zooplankton), heterotrophs-eat the algae, the primary consumers
    level 2 consumers
  56. carnivores, the seconday consumers
    level 3
  57. float around
  58. the basis of most normal marine food changes/webs
    drifters or very weak swimers ( floataround)
    cant swim horizontal
    size microscoptic to 10 meter
  59. single celled algae
    look similar in large masses
    common trate: photosynthesis
    live in the euphotic zone
  60. most dominate photosynthetic organisms
    have silica tests and may form siliceous ooze upon death
  61. composed of calcite and often form calcareous ooze and upon death may become chalk
    concetration of 1000 to 10000
  62. not all are photosynthetic plankton
    fresh water enviroments
    have toxins in them
  63. dinoflafellates contain neurotoxins
    if abundent they become hazzard to marine life
    red tides (not all tides are red)
  64. thought to be plants and refered to blue freen algae
  65. are photosynthetic
    release large amounts of oxygen
    half of oxygenerated by marine life
  66. release coumpounds into atmosphere,seed cloud formation
  67. produce large quanties with no significant nutrients, nitrates phosphates and iron
    nutients brought in by rivers and ocean upwellings or human activity
    phytoplankton blooms
  68. are animals but many not they are protozoa
    can swim but not well
    live by upwelling deep ocean water
  69. organisms that spend their entire lives in a planktonic state
    are extreamly small and resemble phytoplankton
  70. are only planktonic at centain stages of their lives
    settle at bottom and live int eh benthic enviroments
  71. silica based test and may form siliceous ooze upon death
    cover about 3% of the ocean floor
    prey on diatoms
  72. diverse group of protozoa
    live in ocean and some live in fresh water lakes
    many have calcite based test and form caleareous ooze after death
    determin enviromental condition
  73. have planktonic forms
    both in fresh and oceans
    most abundent zooplanketon based on total numbers
    live inwetlands moss
    planktonic crustanceans
  74. major food source
    60% of oceans zooplankton bio mass is this
    near antartica and alaskic bearing
    whales and birds feed on them
  75. are small mollusks
    many have calcite shells
    major source of biogenous sediments
  76. are holoplankton others are nyctonic
    exceed 12 ft
    jelly fish
  77. live or attach to sea floor
  78. animals that can move
  79. that cant move or attached to the sea floor
  80. live in sea floor materal san mud
    burrouring organisms
  81. very primitive
    filter feaders
    spicules - keep them up right
    sponges "phylum porifera"
  82. may have medusa(jellyfish) and or polyp(sea annemones) forms
    they sting
    phylum cnidaria
  83. stinging cells
  84. attach to shells or clams
    sea anemones (polyps)
  85. adult coral is a polyps
    they sement themselves wiht calcare to stick to rick
  86. often look like coral
    will grow at the surface of an organism like clams
  87. often resemble clams
    most are extient today
  88. clams oysters mussels
  89. snails lipets
  90. squid nactiloids
  91. some can swim
    some are ephifunal
    some have eyes
  92. snales
    most diverse group
    inhabit most of marine ecologic
    eveywhere but salt waterq
  93. they look like works but molluses wihtout shells
    sea slugs
  94. most intellegent
    no fresh water
    have developed eyes
  95. cold water does not bother them or pressure
    starfish, sea cumcumber
    shallow to deep ocean
    5 fold
  96. can drop a lim if in danger
    brittle star
  97. crabs shrimp lobster
    consume dead amimals
  98. are colonial
    secreat a mineral like calcite forms a skeleton
    coral reefs
  99. what is the avg tem of coral
    65 to 85
  100. what is the depth of coral
    near surface 30 to 150 f,
  101. water needs to be what so symiotic zooxanthele can photosynthesize
    clear water
  102. what type of surface
    solid rock ship recks
  103. do they like waves and ocean current or still water
    waves and ocean curent so sediment moves away
  104. if temp is to highfor coral what can occure
    bleaching (zooxanthellae)
  105. its bleach due to a bacteria infection
    black b and desease
  106. white b and disease
    disease only affest branching coral
  107. what eats coral
    parrot fish, crown of thorns, starfish
  108. shallow water nest shore
    losts of fish
    mainly branching
    reef flat
  109. the highest point may been seen at low tide
    asorb wave energy and are large
    brain star coral
    reef crest and buttress zone
  110. deepest part of the reef and low light
    branching coral and algal growth
    reef (outer) slope
  111. coral reef developemtn is based on
    sea mounts and valcanic islands
  112. form fairly clost to the shore
    fringing reef
  113. building up
    island sinks and grows outward
    barrier reef
  114. island sinks below sea level may fourm ring linke structure surnounding lagoon
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