general.txt

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Anonymous
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94738
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general.txt
Updated:
2011-07-21 00:14:48
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EMR general
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EMR general
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  1. ´╗┐AED
  2. BSI
  3. 4 modes of infection transfer
    • Contact
    • Airborn
    • Vehicle
    • Vector
  4. dependent lividity
    Blood settling in lowest point of body in death
  5. DNR
  6. implied versus informed consent
    • implied; PT unable to consent for some reason, but they would want it.
    • Informed; PT gives consent
  7. Prone
    Face down
  8. Supine
    on yer back
  9. Trendelenburgs
    body is laid flat on the back (supine position) with the feet higher than the head
  10. Modified Trendelenburgs / Shock
    Back/Head Horizontal, legs raised
  11. Fowlers position
    sitting straight up or leaning slightly back. Their legs may either be straight or bent.
  12. Right Lateral Recumbent
    The Right lateral recumbent, or RLR, means that the patient is lying on their right side.
  13. Left Lateral Recumbent
    The left lateral recumbent, or LLR, means that the patient is lying on their left side.
  14. 8 posible anatomical position on a gurney
    • Prone
    • Supine
    • Trendelenburgs
    • Modified Trendelenburgs / Shock
    • Fowlers position
    • Right Lateral Recumbent
    • Left Lateral Recumbent
    • Recovery Position
  15. 7 direction terms
    • L/R
    • Medial/Lateral
    • Posterior/Anerior
    • Dorsal/Ventral
    • Superior/Inferior
    • Proximal/Distal
    • Planar/Planter
  16. 3 bones of pelvis
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  17. carpels versus tarsals
    • carpels: wrist
    • tarsals: ankle
  18. 3 types of muscle
    • Skeletal (aka striated)
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  19. Base of Trachea called?
    Carina
  20. pleural space is?
  21. %02 in air
    21%
  22. %CO2 in expiration
    3% ~ 5%
  23. %02 in expiration
    16%
  24. hypoxic drive is?
    form of respiratory drive in which the body uses oxygen chemoreceptors instead of carbon dioxide receptors to regulate the respiratory cycle. The hypoxic drive is so weak that unconsciousness will develop before respiratory distress is noted and is therefore a risk for high altitude flying pilots.
  25. 2 drives of breathing
    • CO2
    • Hypoxic
  26. Normal Resp Rate for Adult
    12-20
  27. Normal Resp Rate for Child
    15-30
  28. Normal Resp Rate for Infant
    25-50
  29. Normal Pulse Rate for Adult
    60-100
  30. Normal Pulse Rate for Geriatric
    80-100
  31. Normal Pulse Rate for Child
    70-150
  32. Normal Pulse Rate for Infant
    100-160
  33. Normal BP for Adult
    S90-140 D60-80
  34. Normal BP for Child
    S80-110
  35. Normal BP for Infant
    S50-95
  36. Normal Ventilation Rate for Adult?
    1 breath per 5 to 6 seconds (10 to 12 / min)
  37. Normal Ventilation Rate for Child
    1 breath per 3 to 5 seconds (12 to 20/ min)
  38. Normal Ventilation Rate for Infant
    1 breath per 3 to 5 seconds (12 to 20/ min)
  39. Flow rate and %O2 provided of Nasal Cannula?
    • 1~6 L/min
    • provides 24~44% inspired O2
  40. Flow rate and %O2 provided of Nonrebreathing Mask?
    • 10~15 L/min
    • provides 90% inspired O2 @15 L/m
  41. %O2 provided by Mouth-to-mask (breath only)?
    provides 16% inspired O2
  42. Flow rate and %O2 provided by Mouth-to-Mask with gas?
    • 15 L/min
    • provides 55% inspired O2
  43. Flow rate and %O2 provided by BVM?
    • 15 L/min
    • ~100% inspired O2
  44. What's COPD?
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  45. What's Dyspnea?
    shortness of breath
  46. 9 routes of administration:
    • Inhalation
    • Intramuscular (IM)
    • Intraosseous (IO)
    • Intravenous (IV)
    • Per Os (PO)
    • Per Rectum (PR)
    • Subcutaneous (SC)
    • Transcutaneous
    • Sublingual (SL)
  47. Define MDI
    Metered Dose Inhaler
  48. Define the Breath sound: Crackles
    Crackling rattling breath sounds: Fluid in lung air spaces.
  49. Define the Breath sound: Rhonchi
    Course breath sounds: Chronic mucus in airways
  50. Define the Breath sound: Stridor
    Harsh high piched barking resps: Upper airway obstruction
  51. Define the Breath sound: Wheezing
    • caused by air passing through partially obstructed respiratory passages, but they are higher-pitched because they originate in smaller passages. Wheezes have a whistle-like tone. Although they are more commonly heard during expiration, wheezes can be heard during any phase of respiration.
    • Conditions: Asthma or COPD
  52. Define the Breath sound: Rales
    • Small clicking, bubbling, or rattling sounds in the lung. They are believed to occur when air opens closed air spaces.
    • Fluid is in the lung in some form.
  53. Define the Breath sound: Gurgling
    caused by air passing through respiratory passages that have narrowed or been partially obstructed by secretions, edema, tumors, and so on. Gurgles are usually low pitched and loud and often alter in quality after the patient coughs. They may be heard on both inspiration and expiration. Rhonchi is the older term for gurgles.
  54. Define the Breath sound: Pleural friction rubs
    • Caused by the rubbing together of inflamed and roughened pleural surfaces.
    • The sound is harsh and scratchy, somewhat like two pieces of sandpaper being rubbed together.
    • Friction rubs are heard on both inspiration and expiration. If this sound correlates with the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat, not the respirations, it is a pericardial friction rub.
  55. Location and Function of Spleen?
    • located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
    • It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood in case of hemorrhagic shock while also recycling iron.
    • it metabolizes haemoglobin removed from senescent erythrocytes.
  56. What's the movement: Adduction?
    Movement of limb towards midline
  57. What is the "Anatomic Position"?
    Pt standing facing you, arms at their sides, palms forward.
  58. Angle of louis?
    Ridge on the Sternum lying where the second rib attaches to sternum.
  59. What is the name of the ridge on the Sternum lying where the second rib attaches to sternum?
    Angle of louis.
  60. Anterior Superior Iliac Spines
    The bony prominences of the pelvis (ilium) at the fron on each side of the lower abdomen just below the plane of the umbilicus
  61. Location of Carpalmetacarpal joint?
    Between the Wrist and Metacarpals and the thumb
  62. Location of Cecum?
    First part of large intestine into which the ileum opens.
  63. 3 parts of the lyrynx?
    • Thyroid Cartilage (top)
    • Cricothyroid membrane (middle)
    • Cricoid Cartilage (bottom)
  64. Artery on front of foot?
    Dorsalis Pedis Artery
  65. Foramen Magnum?
    Hole in base of skull for spinal cord
  66. What's the hole in base of skull for spinal cord?
    Foramen Magnum
  67. Greater trochanter?
    bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh just below the hop joint.
  68. What's the bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh just below the hop joint?
    Greater trochanter
  69. Anatomy of inguinal ligament?
    a band running from the pubic symphysis to the anterior superior iliac spine.
  70. Manubrium?
    Upper quarter of sternum
  71. Upper quarter of sternum?
    Manubrium
  72. Mastoid process?
    • a conical prominence projecting from the undersurface of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone and is roughly pyramidal or conical in shape.
    • One important role for this bone is as a point of attachment for several muscles
  73. maxillae?
    a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw.
  74. mandible?
    • Lower jaw
    • a fusion of two halves at the mental symphysis.
  75. Midaxillary line?
    Vertical line through Axilla (armpit).
  76. Midclavicular line?
    Vertical line through calavical
  77. myocardium?
    heart muscle
  78. occiput
    most posterior portion of cranium
  79. pinna?
    visible ear
  80. Sebaceous gland produces?
    Sebum
  81. Sternocleidomastoid muscles?
    Muscles that act to flex and rotate the head.
  82. Xiphoid process?
    small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower part of the sternum
  83. small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower part of the sternum?
    Xiphoid process
  84. Zygomas?
    Cheek bones
  85. Diaphoretic?
    Sweaty Mofo
  86. Ataxic Respirations?
    Irregular and inadequate respirations
  87. Crioid pressure (and aka?)
    • Sellick manouver
    • pressure on the cricoid cartilage to occlude the osophagus when ppv'ing
  88. Dyspnea?
    Shortness of breath
  89. Pulmonary edema?
    accumulation of fluid in the space between the aveoli and pulmonary capillaries
  90. Characteristics of Bronchitis?
    • inflamation of the lungs
    • cough & production of sputum
    • Fluid accumulates in lung tissue
    • Ability to exchange gasses reduced
    • tachypnea
  91. Characteristics of Diptheria?
    • contagious but rare
    • sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity that obstructs the passage of air.
  92. Characteristics of Pneumonia?
    • Acute infection with fever, cough, and sputum
    • Fluid accumulates in lung tissue
    • Ability to exchange gasses reduced
    • Tachypnea
  93. Characteristics of Epiglottitis?
    • Bacterial infection of Epiglottis
    • Pre-shool & school aged kids can have Epiglottis swell to 2 or 3 times size
    • Stridor heard
    • Sore throat
  94. Characteristics of Croup?
    • Inflamation and swelling of whole airway
    • Stridor
    • Seal bark cough
    • humidified O2 recomended
  95. Characteristics of COPD?
    • co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, in which the airways become narrowed.
    • a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath.
    • In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests.
  96. Characteristics of Emphysema?
    • caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli
    • the small airways in the lungs to collapse during forced exhalation. As a result, airflow is impeded and air becomes trapped
    • Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion, and an expanded chest.
    • Because breathing is difficult, the patient must use accessory muscles to help them breathe; tachypnea may occur when they try to extend their exertion.
    • They may have trouble coughing and lowered amounts of sputum.
  97. Spontaneous pneumothorax?
    • An accumulation of air in the pleural space
    • aka a collapsed lung
    • This buildup of air puts pressure on the lung, so it cannot expand as much as it normally does when you take a breath.
  98. Pleural effusion?
    a buildup of fluid between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity.
  99. S/S of Pulmonary Embolism?
    • Dyspnea
    • Acute chest pain
    • Hemoptysis
    • Cyanosis
  100. PRN?
    • Pro re nata
    • "as needed"
  101. Syncope?
    Loss of consciousness
  102. CPR/AED Sequence (unwitnessed arrest)?
    • 1. Open the airway with either head tilt/chin lift or modified jaw thrust, if the airway is clear, check for a gag reflex and maintain the airway with an OPA
    • 2. Check for breathing by look, listening and feeling for the rate, rhythm and depth for no more than 10 seconds
    • 3. lf no breathing, give 2 breaths with a BVM @ 15 L/m
    • 4. Check pulse
    • 5. If there IS a pulse, continue rescue breathing at 1:5 (12/min) for an adult, or 1:3 (20/min) for a child/infant or a patient with suspected ICP
    • 6. If there IS NO pulse start compressions 30:2
    • 7. Apply the AED while compressions are going on
    • 8. After 2 minutes of CPR (5 cycles) analyze using the AED
    • 9. If shock advised, deliver 1 shock and then start directly into 2 minutes of CPR starting with chest compressions. No pulse check at this time
    • 10. If no shock advised, check pulse,
    • a) If there is no pulse continue with compression for 2 minutes then analyze again (start back at line 6)
    • b) If there is a pulse, continue with rescue breathing (start back at line 5)
    • Things to remember:
    • If in a moving ambulance, stop the ambulance and turn the engine off before analyzing
    • If hypothermic (body temp below 35deg) only 1 shock is to be delivered on scene, no more than 3 shocks delivered, or 3 no shock advised
  103. CCCE?
    • Color
    • Clarity
    • Concentration
    • Expiry Date
  104. 6 Medical Rights
    • Medicine
    • Dose
    • Documentation - of the other 5
    • Route
    • Time
    • Pt

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