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Regional Labels with Exceptions (e)
- Dry World- sub-tropical high pressure cells induces arid conditions
- (e) mountains and orographic conditions. Mountains keep the moisture out. Like in Morocco and Turkey.
- (e) rivers and oases
- refers to language, but other variables as well.
- (e) non-Arab speakers on the regional
- Berbers, Hebrew, Kurdish, Turkish.
- Hebrew and Arab are both somatic languages.
What is dry farming?
Farmers rely exclusively on rainfall to produce their craps
What are the primary cereal and tree crops?
Wheat barely, almonds and olives, and grapevines
In what large scale or extensive regions is cereal dry farming practiced?
Coastal plains in Morocco, the high plateau in Algeria, and the plateau in central turkey.
What are qanats and why are they important to agriculture?
And underground tunnerl that moves water from source to field. It provides year round irrigation.
Alternates between winter pastures in the lowlands and summer pastures in the uplands. Follow regular routes, herds a major source of meat and animal products. Focus on sheep.
Uses variations in the availability of grass and water and generally operates in relatively flat areas. Moves from wells that proivde water to their herds in the dry season to distant regions where rainfall produces surface water and grass. Focus on camel.
Identify the Five Pillars of Islam that govern the behavior and beliefs of Muslims.
Creed, prayer, charitable giving, fasting, and pilgrimage
What is the primary difference between the Sunni and Shi’ite (Shia) branches of Islam?
Shi’ite think that only descendants of Mohammed should hold political power and Sunni think that any practicing Muslim can exercise power.
Where are Shi'ite (Shia) geographically concentrated?
Iran, southern Iraq, southern Lebanon, Tem, the interior of Oman, and the Gulf coast districts of Saudi Arabia.
- Last of the 3 “great” religions
- Hearth in Mecca, Mohammed as prophet, Quran as holy book.
- Major subdivisions of Sunni and Shi’ite (Shia)
- Perceive negative traits are not religious- based but culturally based.
- (e) non-Islamic peoples include Jews, Copts, Maronites, and Assyrians.
- Well endowed, but not spatially uniform.
- Largest global oil reserves and producer.
Greatest reserve countries in the region
- Saudi Arabia
Strong historical ties to Europe
- First established during the Greek period, later as a Roman grain basket, especially the “Maghreb.”
- Strong tourist trade, today.
- Colonialism re-establishes core-periphery relationship.
- During post-colonial period, labor migration and remittances important.
Egypt- the Nile and Ecological Change
- Traditional basin irrigation
- Annual spring floods keeps soil fertile
- Limits areal extent of agricultural production
Modern Perennial Irrigation
- Aswan Dam increases agricultural production by “regularizing” water flow and increasing agricultural space.
- Decreases soil fertility and increase salinization
- Reduces water flow downstream and increases land loss at Nile Delta
Future Water Resource Conflicts
- Region wide water shortages
- Might be more serious than oil conflicts
- Upstream states reduce water flow to downstream states.
- Greatest potential conflict between upstream Turkey and downstream Iraq and Syria along Euphrates
Israel/Palestine- sources of modern day conflict
- Creation of the state of Israel in 1948 makes refugees of native Palestinians.
- Annexation of territory as a result of 1967 Arab-Israeli War
- West Bank remains key to solving Palestinian question, but problems with “kibbutz”
- Diversion of Jordan River water.
- Designation of Jerusalem as the political capital
- Construction of “the wall” between Israel and Palestinian West Bank.
Is the “Swiss cheese” West Bank proposal acceptable to Palestinians?
The Gulf States: Regional Characteristics
- Limited resource base for metallurgical industries.
- Limited agricultural resources except in Iraq and Iran.
- Weak urban traditions, except in Iran and Iraq.
- Pervasive influence of conservative Islam in daily life
Oil and National Development- Arabian Peninsula
- Infrastructure development
- Although not efficient (comparative advantage), specialized agriculture receives investment
- Socio-economic investment in education to provide technical skills.
- Diversification of industry by adding value to domestic oil resources has been weak.
- United Arab Emirates (UAE) have successfully established financial, regional transport and retail shopping sevice industries-especially Dubai.
Impact of Oil Wealth
- The political economy of “rentier” states
- Liberal social welfare programs creates a “pampered” urban population in Arabian Peninsula States.
- Imported labor
- Future growth of middle class threatens power of the monarchies.
Iraq- the center of attention in the Arab World. PART I
- The first great global “civilization”
- Baghdad as the center of the Abbasid Caliphate in 750-1250 A.D. known as “the golden age” of Islamic learning.
- Becomes part of the larger Ottoman Empire (1299-1922)
- Iraq becomes a British Mandate in 1920- monarchy established, first oil bonanza.
Iraq- the center of attention in the Arab World. PART II
- Pan-Arabist and secular Ba’ath party gains control and monarchy deposed in late 1950s.
- Saddam Hussein becomes president in 1979
- War with Iran 1980-1988 over strategic Shatt El-Arab, on million dead, Iraq uses chemical weapons against Kurds and environmental destruction of Marsh Arabs (Shia)
- Gulf War in 1991, U.S. imposes “no-fly zones” to protect ethnic-Kurds and Shia
- Reconciliation between the three groups will be difficult not because of religion but based on territory and power.
What percentage is Sunni, Kurds, Shia?
20%, 17%, 80%