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What is a Prime Mover?
The muscle group directly responsible for the movement of resistance in a given exercise.
Parallel Sagittal Plane
parallel with midline, divides body laterally
divides body into a front half and a back half (lateral raise, pull down, military press)
divides the body superiorly and inferiorly (rotation at the waist, bench press, internal external rotation)
along the side of the body (front pulling down a shade, elbow bending forward, close grip bench, squat)
to the front - ventral
to the back - dorsal
toward the trunk (closest to)
away from the trunk (furthest from)
toward the middle of the body
away from the middle point of the body
both sides of the body
one side of the body
toward the extremities
toward the outer surface
towards the inner body
- o Shoulder girdle: scapula, clavical.
- o Arm: humerus.
- o Forearm: radius (lateral), ulna (medial).
- o Wrist: carpals.
- o Hand: metacarpals, phalanges.
- o Thigh: femur.
- o Leg: tibia (medial), fibula (lateral).
- o Foot: calcaneus, talus,
- o Skull.
- o Hyoid.
- o Vertebral column: cervical, thoracic, lumbar,sacrum, coccyx.
- o Ribs, sternum.
- o Pelvis: ilium, ischium, pubis.
Spine Structure and Basic Function
- *Adult spine has 24 vertebrae
- o Cervical 7 vertebrae more extension
- o Thoracic 12 vertebrae more flexion
- o Lumbar 5 vertebrae more extension
Hip and Pelvis Structure
- *4 bones make up the pelvic girdle.
- o Sacrum.
- o Ilium.
- o Ischium.
- o Pubic.
- o Scapula (shoulder blade).
- o Humeral head.
- o Clavicle.
a joint is an interaction of bones
“Degrees of Freedom” of a joint
planes of motion that joints can move along at one time
Types of Joints
- o Ball and Socket Joints
- o Hinge Joints
- o Gliding Joints
Ball and Socket Joints
(Shoulder, Hip) - the 3 degree joints (move in 3 planes at onetime)
(Elbow, knee) - concave surface moving along the convex surface, 1 degree of freedom (move in 1 plane)
(Wrist, foot) - bones slide past each other, 3 degrees of freedom (move in 3 planes at one time)
- o Muscle contraction as fibers shorten.
- o Usually active, voluntary.
- o Muscle contraction as fibers lengthen.
- o Usually involuntary, in order to protect the joint.
- o Usually antagonistic - purpose is to decelerate the agonist (usually occurs at the end range ofthe joint).
- o Strength training more effective when including eccentric actions.
- o More muscle injuries occur during eccentric phase than concentric phase.
Muscle contraction with movement around the joint.
Muscle contraction at the same position.
- o Muscle contraction at a constant velocity.
- o Pushing an object that cannot be moved.
Muscle performing a particular action.
- o Muscles that act in opposition to the movement generated by the agonists.
- o Responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.
(forced relaxation) - Antagonists are inhibited from contracting due to tight agonists
Antagonistic Muscle Groups
- o Pectorals/latissimus dorsi.
- o Anterior deltoids/posterior deltoids.
- o Left and right external obliques.
- o Quadriceps/hamstrings.
- o Biceps/triceps.
- o Forearm flexors/extensors.
Smaller muscles providing assistance to the larger working muscle groups.
Muscles providing stability in order for the agonist to perform.
bending of a joint that decreases the angle
straightening of a joint that increases the angle
less extension than normal
extension beyond normal limits
away from the body
toward the body
palm turning down
palm turning up
forward motion, occurs at shoulder joint (abduction)
backward motion, occurs in the shoulder joint (adduction)
(ankle) pointing foot up towards body
(ankle) pointing foot down
turning feet inward so the soles face each other
turning the soles outward
What % of the body is muscle?
Name 3 types of smooth muscle.
- Cardiovascular tissue
- Digestive tissue
- Respiratory tissue
What is cardiac muscle?
What does a synergistic (secondary muscle) do?
Assist the “Prime Mover” in any given exercise.
What are 3 of the primary functions of the Skeletal system?
- Protects vital organs
- Provides for body’s vertical shape
- Allows for motion via muscle attachments to bones
- Builds blood cells
What does a tendon do?
Attaches muscles to bones
What does a ligament do?
Attaches bones to bones
Primarily, how does the perimysium and epimysium differ from the endomysium?
Endomysium surrounds the individual fiber
Left ventrical of the heart muscle adapts to weight training by getting thicker/stronger;while adapting to aerobics by getting....
What is a Motor Unit?
A bundle of like-fibers; Example: bundle of white fast twitch fibers is a “White Fast Twitch Motor Unit”
List how blood flow differs –
- White fast twitch Least blood flow
- Red fast twitch Average blood flow
- Red slow twitch Greater blood flow
How does strength differ –
- White fast twitch Greatest strength
- Red fast twitch Moderate strength
- Red slow twitch Least strength
How does endurance differ –
- White fast twitch Least endurance
- Red fast twitch Moderate endurance
- Red slow twitch Greatest endurance
What rep ranges optimize their effect on –
- White fast twitch 4-6 rep range
- Red fast twitch 12-15 rep range
- Red slow twitch 20-25 rep range
Function of Mitochodria
Powerhouse of the cell creating ATP energy
Function of Myofibril
Structural fibers providing for movement and strength
Where can Ribosomes be found & what do they do?
Rough Sarcoplasmic Reticulum; the “assembly line” that produces actin & myosin in themyofibrils (performs protein synthesis)
What is the order of motor unit recruitment in a high rep set?
- Red Slow Twitch
- Red Fast Twitch
- White Fast Twitch
Is the pump good for size & strength training?
No; inhibits contractions causing failure prior to optimally damaging myofibrils (required for growth)
What is one example of a hinge joint?
What is an Eccentric contraction?
The negative part of the repetition; movement that returns levers to the starting position of the “concentric” exercise
What is an isotonic contraction?
ANY contraction that results in the movement of a joint
The Sartorius is part of which muscle group?
What does a muscle spindle do?
Causes a contractile response just short of tearing tissues during stretching that is too extreme.