Exam 2

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Exam 2
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2011-07-21 23:41:09
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Bio Exam
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Bio 102 Exan=m 2
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  1. 1.
    If you were to move from around
    sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond with
    an increase in the number of your red blood cells.
  2. 1.
    The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to
    ain energy from their food.
  3. 1.
    A waste product of respiration is
    carbon dioxide
  4. 1.
    When you exhale, you
    remove CO2 from the body
  5. 1.
    The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the
    respiratory surf.
  6. 1.
    Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
    have a high ratio of body surface area to volume.
  7. 1.
    Which of the following organisms has a respiratory system that does not
    require a circulatory system?
    grasshopper
  8. 1.
    Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?
    warm salt water
  9. 1.
    The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increases the
    fish's ability to
    extract oxygen from the water
  10. 1.
    The chief advantage of gas exchange in water is that
    • no energy is used to keep the
    • exchange surface wet.
  11. 1.
    Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation is
    false?
    • A terrestrial animal spends much
    • more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its respiratory surface.
  12. 1.
    Which of the following statements is false?
    • C) Vocal cords in our bronchi allow
    • us to speak.
  13. 1.
    What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out
    of the lungs?
    diaphragm
  14. 1.
    Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
    alveoli
  15. 1.
    Inhalation in humans is achieved by
    contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscles.
  16. 1.
    Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?
    always more
  17. 1.
    Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains
    carbon dioxide and unused oxygen
  18. 1.
    In a mammal, blood leaving the lungs goes to
    the heart.
  19. 1.
    Oxygen is mostly transported through the body
    bound to hemoglobin.
  20. 1.
    Most CO2 is transported to the lungs
    as bicarbonate ions.
  21. At which
    point is oxygen-rich blood traveling through a vein?
    point D
  22. 1. Which of the following statements regarding
    circulatory systems is true?
  23. A circulatory system is necessary in any animal
    • whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all
    • parts of the body by diffusion.
  24. 1.
    The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time
    are
    open and closed.
  25. 1.
    Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of
    arthropods?
    • lack of distinction between blood and
    • interstitial fluid
  26. 1.
    Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes, not
    just in the respiratory system, but also in the
    cardiovascular system.
  27. 1.
    Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and
    two heart chambers?
    salmon
  28. 1.
    In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood
    from the lung back to the heart?
    pulmonary vein
  29. 1.
    From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
    aorta.
  30. 1.
    During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________.
    semilunar . . . open
  31. 1.
    The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac
    muscle called the
    sinoatrial node.
  32. 1.
    Which of the following is the cause of 40% of all deaths in the United
    States?
    cardiovascular disease
  33. 1.
    Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
    capillaries
  34. 1.
    In humans, which blood vessels have valves?
    veins
  35. 1.
    As blood moves away from the heart, the relative size and number of
    blood vessels ________, the blood pressure ________, and the velocity of blood
    flow ________.
    A) decreases . . . drops. . . slows
  36. 1.
    Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?
    capillary
  37. 1.
    The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of
    an arteriole
  38. 1.
    The liquid part of blood is called
    plasma
  39. 1. Which of these statements about
    erythrocytes is true?
    Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave disks.
  40. 1.
    What is the most common cause of anemia?
    iron deficiency
  41. 1.
    Multipotent stem cells
    • can differentiate into all blood cells and
    • platelets.
  42. 1.
    Stem cell research may eventually result in a cure for blood cell
    diseases, such as
    leukemia
  43. 1. Use the following diagram to answer the
    questions:

    
    part B


















    part D
  44. 1.
    Which part of this figure depicts
    a venule?
    • part
    • C
  45. 1.
    Which part of this figure depicts a vein?
    part E
  46. 1.
    Which part of this figure depicts a capillary bed?
    part C
  47. 1.
    The body's innate defenses against infection include
    barriers such as dead skin cells and mucus.
  48. 1.
    What substance, produced by virus-infected cells, diffuses to
    neighboring cells to help them fight a viral infection?
    interferon
  49. 1.
    Which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense
    system?
    inflammation
  50. 1.
    The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except
    the
    pancreas
  51. 1.
    Antibodies are
    proteins
  52. 1.
    A substance that can elicit an immune response is called
    an antigen.
  53. 1.
    The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
    • returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system
    • and fighting infections
  54. 1.
    The transfer of antibodies in breast milk to an infant is an example of
    ________ immunity.
    passive
  55. 1.
    Which of the following cell types is responsible for cell-mediated
    immunity?
    T cells
  56. 1.
    A primary immune response is
    • the immune response elicited by the first
    • exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen.
  57. 1.
    The secondary immune response occurs when memory cells bind to
    antigens
  58. 1.
    Complement can be activated by
    antigen-antibody complexes.
  59. 1.
    ________ can destroy infected cells.
    Cytotoxic T cells
  60. 1.
    Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
    helper T cells
  61. 1.
    HIV has a high mutation rate and can use this to its advantage to
    develop resistance to antivirals because
    • frequent mutations provide greater opportunity for
    • survival of selective pressures.
  62. 1.
    Thermoregulation, an important part of homeostasis, is defined as
    • the maintenance of internal body temperature
    • within narrow limits.
  63. 1.
    Animals that maintain internal body temperature using heat generated by
    their own metabolism are called
    endotherms
  64. 1.
    Which of the following physiological responses occurs in the human body
    when it becomes overheated?
    increased blood flow to the skin
  65. 1.
    To enhance heat loss, humans sweat, an adaptation known as
    evaporative cooling.
  66. 1.
    Marine animals that have body fluids with a solute concentration equal
    to that of the surrounding seawater are
    osmoconformers.
  67. 1.
    Which of the following statements regarding freshwater fish is true?
    • Freshwater fish use their gills to actively take
    • up salt ions.
  68. 1.
    To conserve precious salts, freshwater fish
    significantly dilute their urine.
  69. 1.
    Which of the following statements regarding saltwater fish is true?
    • The concentration of solutes in the internal
    • fluids of saltwater fish is much lower than in the surrounding water.
  70. 1.
    Which of the following by-products of metabolism is most toxic?
    ammonia
  71. 1.
    Which of the following kinds of animals excrete their nitrogenous waste
    entirely as ammonia?
    fish
  72. 1.
    What is the advantage of excreting nitrogenous waste in the form of
    ammonia?
    Ammonia excretion conserves energy
  73. 1.
    The land animals that evolved from earlier aquatic forms had to change
    their mechanisms for excreting nitrogenous wastes because
    • D) land animals had a more difficult time with
    • water balance than aquatic species since water was not always available
    • on land.
  74. 1.
    Which of the following statements about uric acid is true?
    • Animals that excrete uric acid avoid the
    • problem of dehydration associated with excretion of urea.
  75. 1.
    What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney?
    nephron
  76. 1.
    Through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?
    urethra
  77. 1.
    Which of the following options correctly lists the structures in the
    kidney in the order in which fluid flows through them?
    • glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal tubule,
    • loop of Henle, distal tubule
  78. 1.
    During filtration in the glomerulus, which of the following will enter
    Bowman's capsule from the bloodstream?
    water
  79. 1.
    Secretion is the movement of substances such as glucose, amino acids,
    ions, and vitamins from the ________ into the ________.
    blood . . . filtrate
  80. 1.
    During production of urine, a major function of the kidney is
    water conservation.
  81. 1.
    Water moves out of filtrate in the nephron tubule into the interstitial
    fluid by
    osmosis
  82. 1.
    Where along the nephron is glucose reabsorbed from the filtrate back
    into the blood?
    proximal tubule
  83. 1.
    When a salmon leaves the river and moves out to sea, you would expect
    ________ to enter its body by osmosis and excess ________ to be pumped out.
    ater . . . salt

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