Card Set Information
Bio 102 Exan=m 2
If you were to move from around
sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond with
an increase in the number of your red blood cells.
The reason animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is to
ain energy from their food.
A waste product of respiration is
When you exhale, you
remove CO2 from the body
The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the
Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must
have a high ratio of body surface area to volume.
Which of the following organisms has a respiratory system that does not
require a circulatory system?
Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?
warm salt water
The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increases the
fish's ability to
extract oxygen from the water
The chief advantage of gas exchange in water is that
no energy is used to keep the
exchange surface wet.
Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation is
A terrestrial animal spends much
more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its respiratory surface.
Which of the following statements is false?
C) Vocal cords in our bronchi allow
us to speak.
What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out
of the lungs?
Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across
Inhalation in humans is achieved by
contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscles.
Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?
Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains
carbon dioxide and unused oxygen
In a mammal, blood leaving the lungs goes to
Oxygen is mostly transported through the body
bound to hemoglobin.
Most CO2 is transported to the lungs
as bicarbonate ions.
point is oxygen-rich blood traveling through a vein?
1. Which of the following statements regarding
circulatory systems is true?
A circulatory system is necessary in any animal
whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all
parts of the body by diffusion.
The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time
open and closed.
Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of
lack of distinction between blood and
Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes, not
just in the respiratory system, but also in the
Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and
two heart chambers?
In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood
from the lung back to the heart?
From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________.
semilunar . . . open
The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac
muscle called the
Which of the following is the cause of 40% of all deaths in the United
Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls?
In humans, which blood vessels have valves?
As blood moves away from the heart, the relative size and number of
blood vessels ________, the blood pressure ________, and the velocity of blood
A) decreases . . . drops. . . slows
Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity?
The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of
The liquid part of blood is called
1. Which of these statements about
erythrocytes is true?
Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave disks.
What is the most common cause of anemia?
Multipotent stem cells
can differentiate into all blood cells and
Stem cell research may eventually result in a cure for blood cell
diseases, such as
1. Use the following diagram to answer the
Which part of this figure depicts
Which part of this figure depicts a vein?
Which part of this figure depicts a capillary bed?
The body's innate defenses against infection include
barriers such as dead skin cells and mucus.
What substance, produced by virus-infected cells, diffuses to
neighboring cells to help them fight a viral infection?
Which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense
The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except
A substance that can elicit an immune response is called
The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system
and fighting infections
The transfer of antibodies in breast milk to an infant is an example of
Which of the following cell types is responsible for cell-mediated
A primary immune response is
the immune response elicited by the first
exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen.
The secondary immune response occurs when memory cells bind to
Complement can be activated by
________ can destroy infected cells.
Cytotoxic T cells
Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?
helper T cells
HIV has a high mutation rate and can use this to its advantage to
develop resistance to antivirals because
frequent mutations provide greater opportunity for
survival of selective pressures.
Thermoregulation, an important part of homeostasis, is defined as
the maintenance of internal body temperature
within narrow limits.
Animals that maintain internal body temperature using heat generated by
their own metabolism are called
Which of the following physiological responses occurs in the human body
when it becomes overheated?
increased blood flow to the skin
To enhance heat loss, humans sweat, an adaptation known as
Marine animals that have body fluids with a solute concentration equal
to that of the surrounding seawater are
Which of the following statements regarding freshwater fish is true?
Freshwater fish use their gills to actively take
up salt ions.
To conserve precious salts, freshwater fish
significantly dilute their urine.
Which of the following statements regarding saltwater fish is true?
The concentration of solutes in the internal
fluids of saltwater fish is much lower than in the surrounding water.
Which of the following by-products of metabolism is most toxic?
Which of the following kinds of animals excrete their nitrogenous waste
entirely as ammonia?
What is the advantage of excreting nitrogenous waste in the form of
Ammonia excretion conserves energy
The land animals that evolved from earlier aquatic forms had to change
their mechanisms for excreting nitrogenous wastes because
D) land animals had a more difficult time with
water balance than aquatic species since water was not always available
Which of the following statements about uric acid is true?
Animals that excrete uric acid avoid the
problem of dehydration associated with excretion of urea.
What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney?
Through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?
Which of the following options correctly lists the structures in the
kidney in the order in which fluid flows through them?
glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal tubule,
loop of Henle, distal tubule
During filtration in the glomerulus, which of the following will enter
Bowman's capsule from the bloodstream?
Secretion is the movement of substances such as glucose, amino acids,
ions, and vitamins from the ________ into the ________.
blood . . . filtrate
During production of urine, a major function of the kidney is
Water moves out of filtrate in the nephron tubule into the interstitial
Where along the nephron is glucose reabsorbed from the filtrate back
into the blood?
When a salmon leaves the river and moves out to sea, you would expect
________ to enter its body by osmosis and excess ________ to be pumped out.
ater . . . salt