Uterus & Vagina S2M3

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  1. What are the four regions of the Fallopian tube
    • Infadibulum (distal end w/fimbrae)
    • Ampulla (fertilization zone)
    • Isthmus (narrow portion)
    • Intramural region (opens to uterus)
  2. What are the layers of the fallopian tube
    • Mucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Serosa
  3. What are the different names for the fallopian tubes
    • Uterine tube
    • Oviduct
  4. The mucosa of the fallopian tube is made up of what type of cells
    • Ciliated columnar cells
    • Non-ciliated columnar cells
  5. What is found in the muscularis layer of the fallopian tube
    Thick layer of circular smooth muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal fibers
  6. What is the serosa of the fallopian tube made up of
    Peritoneum made of mesothelium and a thin layer of loose connective tissue
  7. What do the non ciliated columnar cells produce in the mucosa of the fallopian tube
    Nutritive materials which provide protection for the ovum and facilitate capacitation of sperm
  8. What are the roles of ciliated columnar cells in the fallopian tubes
    They beat towards the uterus and are influenced by hormonal secretion
  9. What are the layers of the Uterus
    • Endometrium (inside layer)
    • Myometrium
    • Perimetrium
  10. What are the two layers of the Endometrium
    • Stratum functionalis
    • Stratum basalis
  11. What is found in the Functionalis layer of the Endometrium
    • Simple columnar cells
    • Lamina propria
    • - Tubular glands pass through
    • - Spiral arteries termiate here in a capillary network
  12. What is found in the Basalis layer of the Endometrium
    • Basalis layer lies below the functionalis layer
    • Contains the beginning of the tubular glands
    • Straight arteries arise here from arcuate arteries
    • Spiral arteries begin here
  13. What is found in the myometrium of the uterus
    • This is the thick muscular layer conataining three muscle layers
    • Inner and outer longitudinal covering the middle circular layer
  14. What is significant about the middle layer of muscle in the myometrium
    It is circular, highly vascularized, and contains the acruate arteries
  15. What is the difference in the layout of cells in the myometrium near the cervix
    It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue with elastic fibers and scattered smooth muscle
  16. What is the perimetrium and how does it differ depending on location
    This is the outer covering of the uterus and is covered by serosa at the body and fundus of the uterus, and by adventitia on the anterior portion of the uterus
  17. What is shed in a menstrual cycle
    Functionalis layer while the basalis layer remains intact
  18. What is the normal amount of blood lost in a menstruation
    35 ml
  19. What happens to the lining of the uterus just prior to menstuation
    2 days before the bleeding stage the spiraled arteries become permanantly constricted reducing oxygen flow to the functionalis causing necrosis to the functionalis layer
  20. What causes patches of functionalis to sloff off
    Spiral arteries become dilated discharging blood and removal of remaining functionalis layer (this is what is known as the 1st day of menstruation)
  21. What stimulates the rebuilding of the endometrium
  22. What is the proliferative phase
    This begins when menstruation flow ceases and continues until day 14 rebuilding the Endometrium with new glands, and arteries
  23. How thick is the functionalis layer
    • 2-3 mm (following proliferative phase)
    • 5-6 mm (following secretory phase)
  24. What is the secretory phase
    This stage begins after ovulation and triggers the thickening of the functionalis layer via an increase in vascularity, edema, and accumulation of glycogen secretions in the endometrial glands
  25. Implantation of the blastocyst occurs when
    About day 20
  26. What hormone induces the secretory phase
  27. What happens to the stromal cells (endometrial cells) after implantation
    They undergo transformation into decidual cells which are large pale cells rich in glycogen
  28. What is the lumen of the cervix lined by
    Simple columnar mucus secreting epithelium
  29. What glands create the secretion from the cervix, and what do they secrete
    • Branched cervical glands
    • Serous fluid & viscous fluid
  30. What is the purpose of the cervix secretions
    • Serous - allows sperm to enter
    • Viscous - forms a plug in the cervix
  31. What is the role of relaxin on the cervix
    Prior to parturition (delivery) it destroys the collagen in the cervix preparing for expansion
  32. Nabothian cysts
    Obstructed cervical glands resulting in retention of secretions and cyst formation
  33. What does cervical cancer often start with
    Metaplasia in the transformation zone of the cervix
  34. What are the layers of the vagina
    • Mucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Adventitia
  35. What is the vagina lined by
    Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  36. What cells in the epithelium of the vagina act as antigen presenting cells
    Langerhans cells presenting to T cells located in the inguinal lymph nodes
  37. What stimulates the epithelium in the uterus to synthesize and secrete large amounts of glycogen
  38. What causes the lower pH of the vagina giving it protection from bacteria
    Cells slough off the vagina releasing glycogen which is converted to lactic acid by bacteria
  39. How is the vagina lubricated
    From glands of the cervix
  40. What is found in the lamina propria of the vagina
    Loose fibroelastic connective tissue with many lymphocytes, neutrophils, and a rich blood supply
  41. What is in the muscularis layer of the vagina
    • Inner circular muscle
    • Outer longitudinal muscle
  42. The adventitia of the vagina is what type of tissue
    Fibroelastic connective tissue
  43. What causes the Areola to become more pigmented
  44. Mammary glands are composed of
    Tubuloalveolar glands consisting of 15-20 lobes
  45. Mothers milk contains what important contents
    • Protein
    • Lipids
    • Lactose
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Antibodies
    • Fat soluble vitamins
  46. What causes the mammary glands to develop in pregnancy
    Estrogen and progesterone
  47. What are the small ducts leading to the lactiferous ducts lined by
    Simple columnar epithelium
  48. Lactiferous ducts and sinuses are lined by
    Stratified cuboidal epithelium
  49. During pregnancy the breast become filled with what unique substance
    Colostrum - protein fluid rich in antibodies
  50. What hormone activates secretion of milk
  51. The alveoli of the mammary glands are surrounded by
    Myoepithelial cells
  52. Lipids and proteins are released in the cells of the mammary glands via what processes
    • Lipids - Apocrine secretion
    • Proteins - Merocrine secretion
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Uterus & Vagina S2M3
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