NCLEX-PN

Card Set Information

Author:
andrewossm
ID:
94857
Filename:
NCLEX-PN
Updated:
2011-07-22 15:53:10
Tags:
CRAM SHEET
Folders:

Description:
NCLEX-PN CRAM SHEET
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user andrewossm on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Serum Electrolytes
    • .

    • Sodium: 135–145 mEq/L
    • .

    • Potassium: 3.5–5.5 mEq/L
    • .

    • Calcium: 8.5–10.9 mg/L
    • .

    • Chloride: 95–105 mEq/L
    • .

    • Magnesium: 1.5–2.5 mEq/L
    • . Phosphorus:

    • 2.5–4.5 mg/dL
  2. Hematology values

    • . RBC: 4.5–5.0 million

    • . WBC: 5,000–10,000

    • . Plt.: 200,000–400,000

    • . Hgb: 12–16 gms women; 14–18 gms men

  3. ABG values
    • . HCO3: 24–26 mEq/L

    • . CO2: 35–45 mEq/L

    • . PaO2: 80%–100%

    • . SaO2: > 95%

  4. Chemistry values
    • . Glucose: 70–110 mg/dL

    • . Specific gravity: 1.010–1.030

    • . BUN: 7–22 mg/dL

    • . Serum creatinine: 0.6–1.35 mg/dL

    • (< 2 in older adults)

    • *Information included in laboratory test may vary

    • slightly according to methods used

    • . LDH: 100–190 U/L

    • . CPK: 21–232 U/L

    • . Uric acid: 3.5–7.5 mg/dL

    • . Triglyceride: 40–50 mg/dL

    • . Total cholesterol: 130–200 mg/dL

    • . Bilirubin: < 1.0 mg/dL

    • . Protein: 6.2–8.1 g/dL

    • . Albumin: 3.4–5.0 g/dL

  5. Therapeutic drug levels
    • . Digoxin: 0.5–2.0 ng/ml

    • . Lithium: 0.8–1.5 mEq/L

    • . Dilantin: 10–20 mcg/dL

    • . Theophylline: 10–20 mcg/dL

  6. Vital signs (adult)
    • . Heart rate: 80–100

    • . Respiratory rate: 12–20

    • . Blood pressure: 110–120 (systolic);

    • 60–90 (diastolic)

    • . Temperature: 98.6° ?/–1

  7. Maternity normals
    • . FHR: 120–160 BPM.

    • . Variability: 6–10 BPM.

    • . Contractions: normal frequency 2–5 minutes

    • apart; normal duration < 90 sec.; intensity

    • < 100 mm/hg.

    • . Amniotic fluid: 500–1200 ml (nitrozine

    • urine-litmus paper green/amniotic fluidlitmus

    • paper blue).

    • . Apgar scoring: A = appearance, P = pulses,

    • G = grimace, A = activity, R = reflexes

    • (Done at 1 and 5 minutes with a score of

    • 0 for absent, 1 for decreased, and 2 for

    • strongly positive.)

    • . AVA: The umbilical cord has two arteries and

    • one vein (Arteries carry deoxygenated blood.

    • The vein carries oxygenated blood.)

  8. Maternity FAB 9
    • —Folic acid = B9. Hint: B stands

    • for brain
    • (decreases the incidence of neural tube defects);

    • the client should begin taking B9 three months

    • prior to becoming pregnant
  9. Abnormalities in the laboring obstetric client
    Early, Variable, and Late Decelerations
    • . Early decelerations—Begin

    • prior to the
    • peak of the contraction and end by the end

    • of the contraction. They are caused by head

    • compression. There is no need for intervention

    • if the variability is within normal range

    • (that is, there is a rapid return to the baseline

    • fetal heart rate) and the fetal heart rate is

    • within normal range.

    • . Variable decelerations—Are noted as

    • V-shaped on the monitoring strip. Variable

    • decelerations can occur anytime during

    • monitoring of the fetus. They are caused by

    • cord compression. The intervention is to

    • change the mother’s position; if pitocin is

    • infusing, stop the infusion; apply oxygen; and

    • increase the rate of IV fluids. Contact the

    • doctor if the problem persists.

    • . Late decelerations—Occur

    • after the peak of
    • the contraction and mirror the contraction in

    • length and intensity. These are caused by

    • uteroplacental insuffiency. The intervention is

    • to change the mother’s position; if pitocin is

    • infusing, stop the infusion; apply oxygen;,

    • and increase the rate of IV fluids. Contact the

    • doctor if the problem persists.

  10. TORCHS syndrome in the neonate
    • This is

    • a combination of diseases. These

    • include
    • toxoplasmosis, rubella (German measles),

    • cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphyllis. Pregnant

    • nurses should not be assigned to care for the

    • client with toxoplasmosis or cytomegalovirus.

  11. STOP—This is the treatment for
    maternal

    hypotension after an epidural anesthesia:

    • 1. Stop pitocin if infusing.

    • 2. Turn the client on the left side.

    • 3. Administer oxygen.

    • 4. If hypovolemia is present, push IV fluids.

  12. Anticoagulant therapy and monitoring
    • . Coumadin (sodium warfarin) PT: 10–12 sec.

    • (control).

    • . Antidote: The antidote for Coumadin is

    • vitamin K.

    • . Heparin/Lovenox/Dalteparin PTT: 30–45 sec.

    • (control).

    • . Antidote: The antidote for Heparin is

    • protamine sulfate.

    • . Therapeutic level: It is important to maintain

    • a bleeding time that is slightly prolonged so

    • that clotting will not occur; therefore, the

    • bleeding time with mediication should be

    • 1 1/2–2 times the control.

    • *The control is the premedication bleeding time.

  13. Rule of nines for calculating TBSA for burns
    • . Head = 9%

    • . Arms = 18% (9% each)

    • . Back = 18%

    • . Legs = 36% (18% each)

    • . Genitalia = 1%

  14. Arab American cultural attributes
    • —Females

    • avoid eye contact with males; touch is

    • accepted if
    • done by same-sex healthcare providers;

    • most
    • decisions are made by males; Muslims

    • (Sunni)
    • refuse organ donation; most Arabs do not

    • eat pork;
    • they avoid icy drinks when sick or

    • hot/cold drinks
    • together; colostrum might be considered

    • harmful
    • to the newborn.

  15. Asian American cultural attributes
    • —They

    • avoid direct eye contact; feet are

    • considered
    • dirty (the feet should be touched last

    • during
    • assessment); males make most of the

    • decisions;
    • they usually refuse organ donation; they

    • generally
    • do not prefer cold drinks, believe in the “hot-cold”

    • theory of illness.

  16. Native American cultural attributes
    • —They

    • sustain eye contact; blood and organ

    • donation is
    • generally refused; they might refuse

    • circumcision;
    • may prefer care from the tribal shaman

    • rather
    • than using western medicine.

  17. Mexican American cultural attributes
    • —They

    • might avoid direct eye contact with

    • authorities;
    • they might refuse organ donation; most are

    • very
    • emotional during

    • bereavement; believe in the
    • “hot-cold” theory of illness.

  18. Religions beliefs
    . Jehovah’s Witness

    • —No blood products

    • should be used

  19. Religions beliefs: Hindu
    No beef containing gelatin
  20. Religions beliefs
    . Jewish

    Special dietary restrictions, use of kosher foods.
  21. Therapeutic diets
    • . Renal diet—High calorie, high carbohydrate,

    • low protein, low potassium, low sodium,

    • and
    • fluid restricted to intake = output + 500

    • ml
    • . Gout diet—Low purine; omit poultry (“cold

    • chicken”) medication for acute episodes:

    • Colchicine; maintenance medication:

    • Zyloprim
    • . Heart healthy diet—Low fat (less than 30%

    • of calories should be from fat)

  22. Acid/base balance
    • . ROME (respiratory opposite/metabolic

    • equal)
    • is a quick way of remembering that in

    • respiratory
    • acid/base disorders the pH is opposite

    • to the other components. For example, in

    • respiratory acidosis, the pH is below normal

    • and the CO2 is elevated, as is the HCO3 (respiratory

    • opposite). In metabolic disorders, the

    • components of the lab values are the same.

    • An example of this is metabolic acidosis.

    • In metabolic acidosis, the pH is below

    • normal
    • and the CO2 is decreased, as is the HCO3.

    • This is true in a compensated situation.

    • . pH down, CO2 up, and HCO3 up = respiratory

    • acidosis

    • . pH down, CO2 down, and HCO3 down =

    • metabolic acidosis

    • . pH up, CO2 down, and HCO3 down =

    • respiratory alkalosis

    • . pH up, CO2 up, and HCO3 up = metabolic

    • alkalosis

  23. Addison’s versus Cushing’s
    • —Addison’s and

    • Cushing’s are diseases of the endocrine

    • system
    • involving either overproduction or

    • inadequate
    • production of cortisol:

    • . Treatment for the client with Addison’s:

    • increase sodium intake; medications

    • include
    • cortisone preparations.

    • . Treatment for the client with Cushing’s:

    • restrict sodium; observe for signs of

    • infection.
  24. Treatment for spider bites/bleeding
    • —RICE

    • (rest, ice, compression, and elevate

    • extremity)
  25. Treatment for sickle cell crises
    • —HHOP (heat,

    • hydration, oxygen, pain medications)

  26. Celiac Disease
    BROW -- Bran, Rye, Oats, and Wheat.
  27. Five Ps of fractures and compartment

    syndrome—These are symptoms of fractures

    and compartment syndrome:

    • . Pain

    • . Pallor

    • . Pulselessness

    • . Paresthesia

    • . Polar (cold)

  28. Hip fractures
    • —Hip fractures commonly

    • hemorrhage, whereas femur fractures are at

    • risk for fat emboli.

  29. Profile of gallbladder disease
    • —Fair, fat, forty,

    • five pregnancies, flatulent (actually

    • gallbladder
    • disease can occur in

    • all ages and both sexes).
  30. Management and delegation

    • . Delegate sterile skills such as dressing

    • changes to the RN or LPN. Where nonskilled

    • care is required, you can delegate the

    • stable
    • client to the nursing assistant. Choose

    • the
    • most critical client to assign to the RN,

    • such
    • as the client who has recently returned

    • from chest surgery. Clients who are being

    • discharged should have final assessments

    • done by the RN.

    • . The PN, like the RN, can monitor clients

    • with IV therapy, insert urinary catheters

    • and
    • feeding tubes, apply restraints,

    • discontinue
    • IVs, drains, and sutures.

    • . For room assignments, do not coassign the

    • post-operative client with clients who

    • have
    • vomiting, diarrhea, open wounds, or chest

    • tube drainage. Remember the A, B, Cs

    • (airway, breathing, circulation) when

    • answering
    • questions choices that ask who would

    • you see first. For hospital triage, care

    • for the
    • client with a life-threatening illness or

    • injury
    • first. For disaster triage, choose to

    • triage first
    • those clients who can be saved with the

    • least use of resources.

    • LEGAL ISSUES IN NURSING

  31. Review common legal terms:
    • tort, negligence, malpractice,

    • slander, assault, battery.

    • Legalities—The RN and the physician

    • institute seclusion
    • protection. The MD or the hospice nurse

    • can pronounces
    • the client dead.

  32. Types of drugs
    • *The generic name is listed first with the

    • trade
    • name in parentheses
  33. . Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting
    agents:

    • : Benazepril (Lotensin), lisinopril

    • (Zestril), captopril

    • (Capoten), enalapril
    • (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril),

    • moexipril
    • (Univas), quinapril (Acupril), ramipril

    • (Altace)
    • **Persistent dry cough**

  34. Beta adrenergic blockers:
    • : Acebutolol

    • (Monitan, Rhotral, Sectral), atenolol

    • (Tenormin, Apo-Atenol, Nova-Atenol),

    • esmolol
    • (Brevibloc), metaprolol (Alupent,

    • Metaproterenol), propanolol (Inderal)

    • BBW: Do not stop abruptly

  35. Anti-infective drugs
    • Gentamicin

    • (Garamycin, Alcomicin, Genoptic),

    • kanamycin
    • (Kantrex), neomycin (Mycifradin),

    • streptomycin
    • (Streptomycin), tobramycin (Tobrex,

    • Nebcin), amikacin (Amikin)

    • **Peak and Trough**

  36. Benzodiazepine drugs:
    • Clonazepam

    • (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium),

    • chlordiazepoxide
    • (Librium), lorazepam (Ativan), flurazepam

    • (Dalmane)

  37. . Phenothiazine drugs:
    • Chlopromazine

    • (Thorazine), prochlorperazine (Compazine),

    • trifluoperazine (Stelazine), promethazine

    • (Phenergan), hydroxyzine (Vistaril),

    • fluphenazine

    • (Prolixin)
  38. Glucocorticoid drugs:
    • Prednisolone

    • (Delta-Cortef, Prednisol, Prednisolone),

    • prednisone (Apo-Prednisone, Deltasone,

    • Meticorten, Orasone, Panasol-S),

    • betamethasone
    • (Celestone, Selestoject, Betnesol),

    • dexamethasone (Decadron, Deronil, Dexon,

    • Mymethasone, Dalalone), cortisone

    • (Cortone),
    • hydrocortisone (Cortef, Hydrocortone

    • Phosphate, Cortifoam), methylprednisolone

    • (Solu-cortef, Depo-Medrol, Depopred,

    • Medrol,
    • Rep-Pred), triamcinolone (Amcort,

    • Aristocort,
    • Atolone, Kenalog, Triamolone)

  39. Antivirals
    • Acyclovir (Zovirax), ritonavir

    • (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase,

    • Fortovase),
    • indinavir (Crixivan), abacavir (Ziagen),

    • cidofovir (Vistide), ganciclovir

    • (Cytovene,
    • Vitrasert)

  40. Cholesterol-lowering drugs
    • Atorvastatin

    • (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol),

    • lovastatin
    • (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol),

    • simvastatin
    • (Zocar), rosuvastatin (Crestor)

  41. Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs:
    • Valsartan (Diovan), candesartan

    • (Altacand),
    • losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis)

  42. Cox 2 enzyme blocker drugs
    • Celecoxib

    • (Celebrex), valdecoxib (Bextra)

  43. Histamine 2 antagonist drugs
    • Cimetidine

    • (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine

    • (Axid), rantidine (Zantac)

  44. Proton pump inhibitors:
    • : Esomeprazole

    • (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid),

    • pantoprazole
    • (Protonix), rabeprazole (AciPhex)

  45. Anticoagulant drugs:
    • Heparin sodium

    • (Hepalean), enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox),

    • dalteparin sodium (Fragmin)

  46. Drug schedules (I-V)
    • . Schedule I—Research use only (example

    • LSD)

    • . Schedule II—Requires a written prescription

    • (example Ritalin)

    • . Schedule III—Requires a new prescription

    • after six months or five refills (example

    • codeine)

    • . Schedule IV—Requires a new prescription

    • after six months (example Darvon)

    • . Schedule V—Dispensed as any other

    • prescription or without prescription if

    • state
    • law allows (example antitussives)

  47. Medication classifications commonly used in
    a

    medical/surgical setting

    • . Antacids—Reduce hydrochloric acid in the

    • stomach

    • . Antianemics—Increase red blood cell

    • production

    • . Anticholenergics—Decrease oral secretions

    • . Anticoagulants—Prevent clot formation

    • . Anticonvulsants—Used for management of

    • seizures/bipolar disorder

    • . Antidiarrheals—Decrease gastric motility

    • and reduce water in bowel

    • . Antihistamines—Block the release of

    • histamine

    • . Antihypertensives—Lower blood pressure

    • and increase blood flow

    • . Anti-infectives—Used for the treatment of

    • infections

    • . Bronchodilators—Dilate large air passages

    • in asthma/lung disease

    • . Diuretics—Decrease water/sodium from the

    • Loop of Henle

    • . Laxatives—Promote the passage of stool

    • . Miotics—Constrict the pupils

    • . Mydriatics—Dilate the pupils

    • . Narcotics/analgesics—Relieve moderate to

    • severe pain

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview