A&P Chemistry

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Author:
Lissa-Monster
ID:
94921
Filename:
A&P Chemistry
Updated:
2011-07-23 10:45:27
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Anatomy Physiology
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Description:
Chemistry of the body
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  1. Cardiac Arrythmia
    K+ (Potassium imbalance)

    Can be too high or too low
  2. Disaccharide
    Simple Carbohydrates

    Two monosaccharides joined together

    (exa. lactose or sucrose)
  3. Bases
    Either releases more hydroxide ions or takes on more

    pH above neutral (7.0)
  4. Peptide Chain
    (Polypeptide)

    Amino acids bonded together

    AA-AA-AA
  5. Amino Acid Structures

    H-C-O
    |
    "R"
    20 different types of amino acids that form all human polypeptides
  6. Lysosomes
    Organelles containing enzymes which break down cell components
  7. H2O in the Body
    60% to 70%
  8. pH of Water
    7.0
  9. Isotopes
    An atom with extra neutrons

    (exa. Carbon 12 has 6 normal neutrons, Carbon 14 has 8 neutrons and is radioactive)
  10. C.H.N.O.P.S.
    Elements of life

    Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
  11. Carbohydrates
    Organic

    Contains Carbon and Hydrogen

    Short term energy

    Simple and Complex types
  12. Peptide Bond
    Bond between amino acids

    Four types (folds) - Primary, secondary, Tertiary, and Quartermary
  13. Oils
    Lipid - found in plants

    (exa. Olive Oil)
  14. Ion
    Atoms that carry a charge
  15. Hydrophobic
    Water fearing
  16. Hypertention
    Too much Na (Sodium)
  17. Cellulose
    Complex Carbohydrates

    Glucose found in plant cell walls

    Passes undigested though the system as fiber
  18. Water has a High Heat of Vapoization
    Can absorb tremendous amounts of heat before changing
  19. Proton
    Subatomic particle with a positive charge

    Located in the nucleaus of the atom
  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    Liquid fats with weak hydrogen bonds

    Good fats
  21. Monosaccharide
    Simple carbohydrates

    One sugar

    (exa. Glucose)
  22. Prions
    "Misfolded" Protiens

    Body doesn't know what to do with them so they accumulate in lysomes
  23. Organic Molecule
    "Most" contain carbon
  24. Hydrogen Bond
    When covalent hydrogen carries a very weak charge and is attracted to a nearby atom

    (exa. H2O)
  25. Element
    Grouping of same atoms

    Make up all matter
  26. Phospholipids
    Constructed like fats

    EXCEPT

    Contain phosphate in place of fatty acid

    Hydrophobic heads and Hydrophilic tails

    Form cell membrane
  27. Water as a Solvent
    Facilitates chemical reactions
  28. Water as a Cohesive
    "Sticky"

    (exa. Blood can transport oxygen and nutrients)
  29. Radioactive isotopes
    Realease energy as they decay

    Used as a tracer in medicine

    (exa. Radioactive iodine)
  30. Saturated Fatty Acids
    Carbon bonds are full (saturated) by hydrogen molecules

    Bad Fats

    • H
    • |
    • H H H H
    • | | | |
    • C-C-C-C-C
  31. pH of Blood
    7.35 to 7.45
  32. Atom
    Smallest unit of an element
  33. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell
  34. Fats
    Lipid - found in animals

    (exa. butter)
  35. Electron
    Subatomic particle with a negative charge

    Orbits the nucleus
  36. Molecules of Life
    Macromolecules that are unique to living cells

    Carbohydrates, Lipids, Protiens, Nucleic Acids
  37. Hydrophillic
    Water Loving
  38. Starch
    Complex Carbohydrates

    Glucose found in plants
  39. Enzymes
    Protien molecules that allow chemical reactions to occur in the body

    Named for what they digest

    (exa. Lactase waiting for Lactose to "come" be digested)
  40. Denaturation
    Irreversable chance in the shape of protiens, caused by exposure to extremes in pH and Heat
  41. Atomic Weight
    Sum of the number of protons and neutrons
  42. Covalent Bond
    When atoms share electrons in their outer shell
  43. Unstable Atom
    Does not have the minimal number of electrons in the outer shell

    Always looking to bond with another atom
  44. RNA
    Ribonucleic Acid

    Determines which protiens a cell will have
  45. Steroids
    Lipids that have a different structure than fat

    (exa. Estrogen, Testosterone, Cholesterol)
  46. Ionic Bond
    One atom gives an electron to form another atom
  47. Lipids
    Long term energy

    Some form cell membranes
  48. Protiens
    Macromolecules made up of Amino Acids

    Form Collagen, Make up Hormones, Move muscle cells, Transport molecules in the blood, Protects against toxins, Forms enzymes that speed up chemical reactions
  49. Diabetes
    Lack of Insulin

    Insulin helps carry glucose to the liver to be stored

    Excess glucose in the body
  50. Acid
    Dissociates in water

    Releases more hydrogen ions

    pH below neutral (7.0)
  51. Inorganic Molecule
    Does not contain Carbon
  52. Atomic Number
    Equal to number of protons only
  53. Rickets
    Ca (Calcium) deficiency (too low)
  54. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    Determins hereditary information
  55. Glycogen
    Complex Carbohydrates

    Glucose found in animals

    Liver stores extra glucose as glycogen

    Balance is important for brain and nerve function
  56. Molecules
    Can contain same atoms (O)

    or different atoms (H2O)
  57. Nucleic Acid
    Huge macromolecules composed of necleotides

    (exa. phosphate, sugar, nitrogen)
  58. Neutron
    Subatomic particle with a neutral or "no charge"

    Located in the nucleus of the atom

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