A&P Cell Structure

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A&P Cell Structure
2011-07-23 11:31:58
Anatomy Physiology

Basic cell structure and function
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  1. Plasma Membrane
    Outer walls of animal cells

    Double Phospholipid Memdrane

    Selectively allows passage of molecules in and out of the cell

    Selectively Permeable
  2. Plasma Wall
    Outer walls of plant cells
  3. Organelle
    Functional unit of a cell
  4. Cholesterol Molecule
    In plasma membrane

    Gives it stability
  5. Cytoplasm
    Gel like substance (contains water and various protiens)

    Mantains shape of the cell and holds organelles in place
  6. Nucleus
    Contains necleoplasm, chromatin, and nucleolus

    "Control Center"

    Stores genetic information
  7. Nucleolus
    Chromatin, RNA, and Protiens

    Formation of ribosomes
  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum

    System of tubes, vesicles, and sacs

    Modifies protiens, transports substances through vesicles
  9. Rough ER
    ER that is studded with ribosomes

    Protien synthesis for RNA
  10. Smooth ER
    Without ribosomoes

    Lipid and steroid synthesis, calcium storage
  11. Vacuole
    Small membranous sacs

    Isolates substances within the cell
  12. Vesicle
    Small membranous sacs

    Storage and transport of substances in and out of the cell
  13. Lysosomes
    Vesicle that contains digestive enzymes

    Intracellular digestion, self digestion of the cell

  14. Peroxisome
    Vesicle containing digestive enzymes

    Detoxifies drugs
  15. Cytoskeleton
    Microtubules, Actin filaments

    Shape of the cell and movement of it's parts
  16. Cillia and Flagella
    Cillia - hairlike

    Flagella - Finger/Tail like

    Movement of the cell
  17. Mitochondrion
    Cellular respiration


    Provides ATP

  18. Centrioles
    Formation of spindles during cell division
  19. Ribosome
    Protien synthesis
  20. Golgi Apparatus
    Folded memmbrane

    Processing, Packaging, and Distribution of molecules
  21. Simple Diffusion
    Passive Crossing

    (No carrier molecule)

    Movement of particles from and area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
  22. Osmosis
    Passive crossing

    Diffusion of Water across a plasma membrane
  23. Facilitated Diffusion
    Passive Crossing

    (Carrier molecule)

    Movement of particles to an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  24. Passive Transport
    HIgh concentration to Low concentration
  25. Exocytosis
    Movement of particles out of cells by vesicles
  26. Pinocytosis
    Active Crossing

    Endocytosis "Cell Drinking"

    Movement of particles into cells by vesicles

    (exa. Breastmilk)
  27. Phagocytosis
    Active Crossing

    Endocytosis - "Cell Eating"

    Movement of particles into cells by vesicles

    (exa. Bacteria)
  28. Endocytosis
    Movement of particles into cells by vesicles
  29. Active Transport
    Requires carrier molecul (Protien, ATP)

    Movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
  30. Tonicity
    Degree to which a solution's solutes move in and out of cells
  31. Hypotonic
    Solution that causes cells to swell and rupture

  32. Hypertonic
    Solution that causes cells to shrink

  33. Isotonic
    Concentration of solutes on both sides of the cell membrane
  34. DNA and RNA
    Nucleic Acids

    DNA carries out genetic codes

    Blueprint for protiens in a cell
  35. Interphase
    Cells "getting ready" to divide

    DNA "unzips"

    Results in two identical chromosomes

    RNA leaves nucleus and enters sytoplasm
  36. mRNA

    Wedges between two ribosome subunits
  37. tRNA

    Delivers amino acids to the ribosomes
  38. rRNA

    Makes up ribosomes
  39. DNA
    Used to duplicate cells
  40. RNA
    Used to form protien
  41. P/M/A/T
    Stages of Mitosis

    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  42. Parent Cell
    Cells that divide
  43. Daughter Cell
    Result of cell division
  44. Prophase
    Duplicated chromosomes are scattered

    Stage 1 of 4
  45. Metaphase
    Chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the new spindle

    Stage 2 of 4
  46. Anaphase
    Daughter chromosomes are moved to the poles

    Stage 3 of 4
  47. Telophase
    Daughter nuclei are formed and the spindle disappears

    Stage 4 of 4
  48. Mitosis
    "Regular" cell division

    Growth and repair
  49. Meiosis
    "Sex" cell division

    • Sperm and Ova are produced
    • Mitosis is repeated twice
    • Each will only have 23 chromosomes
    • 46 when sperm and ova join
  50. Molecules of Cell membranes


  51. Nuclear Envelope
    Double membrane separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  52. Polyribosomes
    Groups of ribosomes

    aka. Polysomes
  53. Cellular Respiration
    Oxygen is used and Carbon Dioxide is given off by mitochondria as it converts carbohydrates energy into ATP molecules
  54. Tay-Sachs
    Metabolic disorder involving a missing or inactive lysosomal enzyme in nerve cells

    Lysosomes fill with macromolecules that cannot be digested

    Nerve cells becomes so full that the child usually dies