A&P Tissues

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Author:
Lissa-Monster
ID:
94926
Filename:
A&P Tissues
Updated:
2011-07-23 13:12:00
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Anatomy Physiology
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Description:
Body tissues and membranes
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  1. Adhesion Junction
    Plasma membranes that do not touch

    Held together by filaments that allow tissue to stretch

    (exa. heart, cervix)
  2. Tight Junction
    Protiens of plasma membranes join in a tight impermeable manner

    (exa. stomach, kidneys)
  3. Endorine Gland
    "Ductless"

    Secrete product internally to be transported by the bloodstream

    (exa. pancreas)
  4. Membranes
    ine internal spaces of organs, tubes, and body cavities
  5. Mucous Membranes
    Lines walls of organs that open to the outside

    Mucous secreted to protect interior walls from bacterial and viral invasion

    (exa. GI, respiratory, and reproductive tracts)
  6. Serous Membranes
    Line body cavities and cover organs

    Parietal - lines cavaties

    Visceral - covers organs
  7. Mesentary
    Area between abdominal organs where the visveral peritoneum comes together to form a double layered membrane

    Supports organs
  8. Schwann Cells
    Outside the brain and spinal cord

    Surround fibers

    Form Myelin Sheath that speeds conduction of impulses
  9. Nodes of Ranvier
    Gaps between the schwann cells
  10. Synovial Membranes
    Lines freely movable joints

    Secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint
  11. Intercolated Disks
    Folded plasma membranes

    Found in cardiac muscle cells
  12. Nervous Tissue
    Found in the brain and spinal cord

    Cells called neurons

    Conduct impulses
  13. Astrocytes
    Nourish the neurons and produce growth factor

    Hormones which someday may cure parkinsons

    Found only in the brain and spinal cord
  14. Tissue
    Specialized cells of similar structure that perform a specific function in the body

    4 types
  15. Connective Tissue
    Binds structures together, Provides support and protection, Fills spaces, Produces blood cells, Stores Fat
  16. Muscle Cells
    Called muscle fibers

    Long thin cells
  17. Cartilage
    Chondrocytes

    Lie in small chambers called lacunae

    Lack a blood supply
  18. Hyaline Cartilage
    Found in nose, ends of long bones, trachea, and the fetal skeleton
  19. Matrix
    Non-living organic substance that holds cells together

    3 types of fibers (Collagen, Elastic, and Reticular)

    Can be solid, fluid, or semi-solid
  20. 5 Types of Membranes
    Meminges

    Cutaneous

    Synovial

    Serous

    Mucous
  21. Avascular
    Without blood supply
  22. Elastic Cartilage
    Has many elastic fibers in the matrix

    Found in the outer ear
  23. Fibrocartilage
    matrix contains strong collagen fibers used as "shock absorbers"

    Found in the disks between the vertabrae and pads in knee joints
  24. Bone
    Most rigid of connective tissue

    Extremely hard martix composed of mineral salts such as calcium
  25. Keritin
    Protien
  26. Cardiac Muscle
    Found only in the walls of the heart

    Involuntary muscle

    Striated, Single centrally placed nuclei, Appear to be "fused", Connected by intercolated disks
  27. Osteocytes
    Bone Cell

    Found inside lacunae in hard angular matrix
  28. Extracellular Junctions
    Areas in tissue where plasma membranes of cells join together
  29. 4 Types of Connective Tissue
    Fibrous (loose, adipose)

    Cartilage

    Blood

    Bone
  30. 3 Types of Cartilage
    Hyaline

    Elastic

    Fibrocartilage
  31. Gap Junction
    Forms when aadjacent plasma membrane channels join, providing strngth but also allow molecules to pass between the cells

    Found in heart, GI and smooth muscle
  32. Osteon System
    1 unit of the matrix of bone

    (side view looks like a tierd cake)
  33. Glands
    Contain one or more cells that secrete a product
  34. Exocytosis
    Excretion

    (exa. Goblet cells withing the columnar epithelium lining the digestive tract secreting mucous)
  35. Simple Squamos
    Single llayer

    Lines air sacs of the lungs, blood vessels, and heart
  36. Stratified Squamos
    Multiple layers

    Lining of esophagus, mouth, vagina, and epidermis

    (Basement layer is flat)
  37. Epithelial Tissue
    Covers surfaces and lines cavities

    Cells are packed tightly together

    Avascular

    Free surface and basement membrane
  38. 3 Types of Muscular Tissue
    Skeletal

    Smooth

    Cardiac
  39. 3 Parts of a Neuron
    Axon

    Body

    Dendrite
  40. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Synovial membrane becomes inflamed and growth thicker

    Eventually fibrous tissue replaces the membrane and the joint can no longer move
  41. Exocrine Gland
    Ducts Secrete products to an outside surface

    "Exit"

    (exa. sweat)
  42. Loose (Aerolar) Tissue
    Fibrous connective tissue

    Lies between organs or tissues (binding them together)

    Made of fibroblasts and a jelly like matrix
  43. Fibroblasts
    Large star shaped cells that produce extracellular fibers

    Makes up loose connective tissue
  44. Adipose Tissue
    Fibrous connective tissue

    Fibroblasts are enlarged to store fat
  45. Dendrite
    Recieves the signal
  46. Blood
    Vonnective tissue made up of cells suspended in a liquid matrix

    Formed elements of blood

    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  47. Meninges
    Membranes found within the posterior cavity
  48. Dense Connective Tissue
    Has a matrix that is produces by fibroblasts that contain thick bundles of collagen fibers
  49. Microglia
    Nourish neurons and engulf bacteria

    Found only in the brian and spinal cord
  50. Smooth Muscle
    "Visceral Muscle"

    Found in hollow viscera (exa. GI tract)

    Spindle shaped

    Involuntary

    Contracts slowly and remains contracted for a long time
  51. Irregular Dense Connective Tissue
    Dermis of the skin

    Bundles of collagen run in different directions
  52. Reticular Connective Tissue
    Lymphatic Tissue

    Part of the immune system
  53. Fibers
    Extremely long Axons
  54. Skeletal Muscle
    Voluntary

    Attached to the skeleton

    Fibers are long and cylindrical with multiple nuclei

    Striated (striped) in appearance
  55. Stratified Columnar
    Two or more layers

    Pharynx (Back of the throat)

    (flat basement layer)
  56. Pseudostratified Columnar
    Single layer

    Lines respiratory tract

    All cells touch basement layer (even if they don't appear to)

    (flat basement layer)
  57. Tracts
    In the brain and spinal cord, fibers are called tracts
  58. Cutaneous Membranes
    "Skin"

    Outer protion is keratinized stratified squamos epithelium

    Inner portion is dense irregular connective tissue
  59. Transitional
    Many layers - Stretchy

    Lines urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra

    (flat basement layer)
  60. 4 Types of Tissue
    Epithelial

    Connective

    Muscular

    Nervous
  61. 5 Types of Epithelial Tissue
    Squamos (Simple and Stratified

    Cuboidal (Simple and Stratified)

    Columnar (Simple and Stratified)

    Pseudostratified Columnar

    Transitional
  62. 3 Shapes of Epithelial Cells
    Squamos (round)

    Cuboidal (Square)

    Columnar (Rectangular)
  63. Cell Body
    Contains the nucleus

    Processes signals
  64. Axon
    Conducts nerve impulses away from the neuron

    Long axons are called fibers
  65. Plasma
    "Liquid" matrix of the body
  66. Simple Cuboidal
    Single layer

    Lines kidney tubules, ducts of glands, and covers surface of ovaries

    (flat basement layer)
  67. Stratified Cuboidal
    Two or more layers

    Lines salivary glands, and mamory glands

    (flat basement layer)
  68. Simple Columnar
    Single layer

    Lines GI tract, and ducts of many glands

    (flat basement layer)
  69. Regular Dense Connective Tissue
    Tendons and ligaments

    Bundles of collagen fibers are parallel
  70. Cancer
    Rapid, uncontrolled, disorganized growth of cells
  71. Nerves
    Outside of the brian and spinal cord fibers are bound together to form nerves
  72. Neuroglia
    Support and nourish neurons
  73. C.A.U.T.I.O.N.
    Danger signs of cancer

    • C-change in bowl/bladder
    • A -sore that doesn't heal
    • U -unusual bleeding/discharge
    • T -thickening/lump
    • I -indigestion/difficulty swallowing
    • O -Obvious change in wart or mole
    • N -Nagging cough or hoarsness

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