A&P Integumentary

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A&P Integumentary
2011-07-23 14:29:23
Anatomy Physiology

The Integumentary system
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  1. Autografting
    Skin graft

    Skin is taken from other parts of the body
  2. Rule of Nines
    Used to estimate the percentage of burn area on a body

    Every part is a value of 9%
  3. Fourth Degree Burn
    Involves tissue down to the bone
  4. Third Degree Burn
    Destroys thickness of the skin

    No pain - because the pain receptors are destroyed

    aka full thickness burn
  5. Second Degree Burn
    Affects the entire epidermis and part of the dermis

    Redness, pain, and blisters at site

    aka partial thickness burn
  6. First Degree Burn
    Affect only the epidermis

    Redness, pain, and no blisters

    (exa. sunburn)
  7. 4 Steps of Wound Healing
    1 - blood vessel ruptures and wound fills with blood

    2 - blood clot forms, scab develops, fibroblasts and WBCs migrate to site

    3 - New epidermis forms, fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration

    4 - Epidermis and dermis are healed by scar formation
  8. Warning Signs of Melanoma
    • A - Asymmetrical (oval or irregular shape)
    • B - Boarders (notched or dented)
    • C - Color (uneven color)
    • D - Diameter (greater than 6mm)
    • E - Elevation (raised above the surface of the skin)
  9. Kaposi's Sarcoma
    Form of skin cancer

    Most commonly seen in AIDs patients

    Red, Blue, Black in appearance
  10. Melanoma
    Begins in melanocytes

    More likely to be malignant

    Appearance of an unusual mole
  11. Squamos Cell Carcinoma
    Nonmelanoma Cancer

    Begins in epidermis

    Also triggered by UV exposure

    More likely to spread to nearby organs
  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Nonmelanoma Cancer

    Most common form of skin cancer

    Caused by UV radiation
  13. Acne Vulgaris
    Inflamation of sebacceous glands

    Most often occurs during adolescence
  14. Urticaria

    Allergic reaction with red, elevated, itchy patches
  15. Dandruff
    Accelerated rate of keritinization

    Produces flaking and itching
  16. Eczema
    Inflamation caused by sensitivity to chemicals

    Heat or dryness
  17. Impetigo
    Highly contagious bacterial infection
  18. Athlete's Foot
    Fungal infection of the feet (most commonly)
  19. Mammary Glands
    Modified aprocrine (sweat) glands that produce milk after the hormonal changes of childbirth
  20. Sebum
    Oily Substance that helps lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair
  21. Sebacous Glands
    Oil gland

    Associated with hair follicles

    Secrete Sebum
  22. Eccrine Glands
    Sweat glands that open to the skin

    Helps cool the body
  23. Appicrine Glands
    Sweat glands that open to the hair follicles of the groin, anal region, and armpits

    Begin to secrete at puberty
  24. Sweat Glands
    Sudoriferous Glands

    Coil shaped

    Become active when body is stressed

    Help regulate the temperature
  25. Exocrine Glands
    Glands that excrete their product to the outside of the body
  26. Lunula
    Thick layer of epithelial cells at the nail base

    "moon shape"
  27. Nails
    Grow from specialized epithelial cells that have become keratinized
  28. Arrector Pili Muscle
    Smooth muscle attached to the hair follicle

    Causes "goose bumps"
  29. Alopecia
    2 types

    Adrongenic - male pattern baldness

    Alopecia Areata - sudden onset of patchy hair loss
  30. Hirsutism
    Excessive body and facial hair

    In females it's caused by excessive male hormones
  31. Decubitus Ulcers
    "Bed Sore"

    Develops whenblood suply to an area is blocked due to constant pressure
  32. Hypodermis

    Lies below the dermis

    Made of loose connective tissue (including adipose tissue)
  33. Dermis
    Deeper, thicker layer

    Made of dense connective tissue

    Contains all accesory organs
  34. Albinism
    Inability for melanocytes to produce melanin
  35. Merckel Cells
    Tacktile cells

    Signal brain that an object has touched the skin
  36. Melanocytes
    Produce melanin
  37. Melanin
    Pigment responsible for skin color
  38. Macrophage
    "cell eating"

    Protects from invading organisms
  39. Langerhan's Cells
    Macrophages found deep in the epidermis
  40. Stratum Basale
    Basement of epidermis

    Cells are constantly dividing and producing new cells and pushing them to the surface
  41. Stratum Lucidum
    Found only in thick skin

    Palms of hands and soles of feet

    Protects from frition

    Middle layer of the epidermis
  42. Stratum Corneum
    Tough, outermost layer of the epidermis

    Flat, hardened cells

  43. Epidermis
    Outer, thinner layer of the skin

    Made up of stratified squamos epithelium