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equilibrium (constant) expression
the ratio of: product activities (in the numerator) to reactant activities (in the denomenator), with each activity raised to a power equal to the coefficient of that species from the balanced chemical equation; pure solids (s) and liquids (l) don't appear in the expression because their activities are 1; things with subscripts like (g) and (aq) are fine
equilibria for reactions in which all products and all reactants are in the same phase
a temperature increase (adding heat) favors the _________ direction, and a temperature decrease (removing heat) favors the __________ direction
a temperature increase favors the endothermic (heat absorbing direction)
a temperature decrease favors the EXOthermic (heat releasing direction)
if the volume becomes smaller (pressure is higher), the reaction shifts so that the total number of gas moles decreases
if the volume becomes larger (pressure is lower), the reaction shifts so that the total number of gas moles INCREASES
memorize dis shit
pH = pKa + log [base]/[acid]
- when an acid and it's conjugate base are equal in concentration, the log cancels out and pH = pKa
- -log[H+] = -logKa!
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