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  1. Gestalt Therapy Founder
    Fritz Perlz 1969
  2. Gestalt Therpay Focus
    Focus is on here an now with immediate awareness of personal experiences.
  3. Gestalt Therapy Techniques
    • Psychodrama, skillful frustration, dream work, empty chair
    • (Unexpressed guilt is viewed as "unfinished business" and clinet needs to readdress this)
  4. Rules of Gestaltk Therapy
    • 1. Directed awareness- speak in the present tense only (uses directed awareness)
    • 2. Use "I"- Accept responsilbity
    • 3. Restricting and planning the use of questions. Avoid 'why' questions.
  5. Object Relations Theory Founder
  6. Object Relations Focus
    A child must separate and individuate so the they can move form being part of the mother/child unit to being a member of a family.
  7. When does individuation occur in object relations:
    When the child develops an inner represenatation of the mother, ability to test reality, a sense of time and an awareness of the existance of other individuals as separate and different form them. Rapprochement is the last phase prior to the completion of individuation.
  8. Client Center Therapy Founder
    Carl Rodgers
  9. Basic goal of Client Centered Therapy
    To release an already existing capacity for self actualization in a potentially competent individual.
  10. Client Centered Therapy Techniques
    Non-drective (passive, nonjudgemental lsitening), relfective (active lsitening). Reinterprets statements made by the client.
  11. Systems Theory Founder
    Pincus and Minahan
  12. Systems Theory Value Base
    • -Society has the obligation to ensure that people have access to resources and opportunities
    • -When providing resources dignity and individuality should be obtained.
  13. Systems Theory- How individual is seen
    Organic entity with boundaries, purpose and mechanisms for attaining change and maintaining stability. What happens to one component happens to antoher.
  14. Systems Theory- Four identified systems
    • -Change Agent System
    • -Client System
    • -Target System
    • -Action System
  15. Techniques used in Systems Theory
    Educating, Advocacy, Facilitation, and Intervention
  16. Systems theory- 8 Practice skill areas that workers need:
    • Assessing problems
    • Collecting Data
    • Making initial contracts
    • Negotiating contracts
    • Forming action systems
    • Maintaining and coordinating action systems
    • Exercising influence
    • Terminating the change effort.
  17. Ecological Systems Perspective
    Study of the relations between the organizations and the environment. Good model to use for minority concerns. Uses PIE.
  18. Family systems- Practice applications
    • -Realize importance of relationship influences and family interactions patterns
    • -Help identify influential relationships at each life staf and ho influence the future
    • -Use your power as a therapist to develop relationship for change, helping to identify and anticipate problems based on past established realtionship patterns.
  19. Family Systems
    Changes in one part of a system change the whole system.
  20. Family systems
    When influenced by change, the system will react toward restoration of the status quo
  21. Family Systems
    Negative Feedback:
    Takes family back to a comfotable balance. As the family ssytem reacts, negative feedback is used to bring a family back into balance and maintain homeostasis. For example, if a woman wants to leave her young child at day care and go to work, her fear of family disapproval may be enough incentive to change her mind.
  22. Family Systems
    Postive Feedback:
    Pushes family into chagnes and the family deviate away fro its previous homeostatic state. Use to disturb or unabalance homeostasis. For example: a woan decided to work outside the home, positive feedback would be used to her her family to redefine their roles for the changes that must occur in the fammily system.
  23. Family System
    The family has an identity of its own; The family system is more than the sum of the individuals who compromise it.
  24. Family System
    The natural tendency to move towards disorder and disorganization.
  25. Family Systems
    Same result can come form different causes
  26. Family systems
    One cause can produce different results.
  27. Father of Family Therapy
  28. Family Systems
    Satir and Whitaker
    Emphasis on behavior as communcation and the communication inconsistencies that can occur. Satir focused on communication problems double binds, faulty comminication is caused by low self esteem. Witaker operated with unconcious and transference phenomena.
  29. Family Systems
    Extended family systems. Triangulation. Dysfuntion across generations. Often use ecomaps and genograms
  30. Family Systems
    Structure. Where behaviors are established through changes in transactional patterns, rather than through insight (action comes from insight). Treament seeks to restructure family unit maladaptive trasactional patterns. Techniques used: direct confrontation of family behaviors and prescribing the symptom. Best for deriving specific outcomes.
  31. Family Systems
    Strategic family therapy. Therapist often joins the family and is active in forcing the family to respond differetnly to siatuations based on the presence of the therapist and making use of family symptoms to bring about change.
  32. Family Systems
    Behavioral Family Therapy. Treatment is focused on changing behavioral systems.
  33. Transference
    Refers to emotional reactiosn assigned to current realationships that come form earlier relationships, often involves unresolved issues directed at the social worker that are beyond the cleints awareness.
  34. Counter Transference
    Similar to transference emotions but the social worker is teh one who attributes these feelings to the client.
  35. Reflection
    The social worker helps the cliet to further realize and understand what they are feeling and encourages further understanding and expression.
  36. Social Learing Theory Founder
    Albert Bandura
  37. Social learning Theory
    • Learning takes place through observation and reinforcement.
    • Reinforcement is key to contining behavior. Feedback is improtant with self evaluative coments. Intermittent reinforcement is the most powerful way to maintain a behavior.
  38. Social Learning Theory
    4 Major Principles
    • -Specificity- when things are clearly and concretely identified
    • -Successive approximations- small steps to reach a goal
    • -Modeling- comples learning takes place through watching the behavior more ingrained.
    • -Performance- completing or actually doign makes teh behavior more ingrained.
  39. Classic Model of Conditioning
    Pavlov, relationship between a stimulus and a response is unlearned or prewired (dog salivating to bell) emphaiss on antecedents
  40. Operant Model of Conditioning
    Skinner, learning and reinforcement (rats push level for food) emphasis on consequences.
  41. Behaviora therapy/modification
    • reinforcement- behavior increases
    • Punishment- behavior decrease
    • negative- take something away
    • Postive- to add/give something
  42. Stimulus generalization
    the same response is given to various stimuli.
  43. Aversive Therapy
    (a dog with a shock collar to stop the dog b arking so much)
  44. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
    • Founder Albert Ellis
    • Dysfunctional behaviors are the result of irrational thoughts and beliefs.
  45. RABT
    ABCDE Model
    • A= objective facts adn beahviors and individual encounters
    • B= the individuals beliefs about A
    • C=emotioanl and behavioral consequences of A
    • D= Therapist debates teh irrational beliefs by asking specific why, where, and how questions
    • E= the cognitive emotional and behavioral effects associated with the irrational beliefs are examined.
  46. Problem Solving Model Founder
    Helen Harris Perlman
  47. Problem Solving Model
    4 Ps
    • Place (where treatment is sanctioned)
    • Person
    • Problem
    • Process (what has to be done)
  48. Task Centered Social Work Founder
    William J Reid
  49. Task-Centered Social Work
    Problems generally reflect temporary breakdowns in proglem coping that set in motion forces of change. Use client motivation and resources to assist in task centered problem solving. Problems are defined in specific elements for change.
  50. Solution Focused social work
    • -empahsis is placed on developing solutions for addressing problem behaviors.
    • -change-talk or chagne-strategy is the focus of all interventive efforts.
  51. Brief Planned Treatment
    5 essential characteristics
    • Prompt intervention
    • Relatively high level of therapist activity
    • establishment of specific but limited goals
    • identification and maintenance of a clear focus
    • Setting of a time limit.
  52. Crisis Intervention
    • Characterized by:
    • -a here and now orientation
    • -a time limited course
    • -view of clients behavior as understandable reaction to stress
    • -therapist is very active and directive
  53. Basic Tenants of Crisis Intervention
    • Hazordous event-
    • Vulnerable state-
    • Precipitating factor- (The last straw)
    • Active crisis state
    • Individual Reintegrates and reaches equilibrium
  54. Social Work Practice Principles for Crisis Intervention
    • -Immendiate intervention
    • -Action
    • -Limited goals
    • -Build hope and expectations
    • -Foster support
    • -Focus on resolution of resolving problem underlying the crisis.
    • -Build self image and self confidence
    • -Build sefl reliance
  55. Strategies and Techniques in Crisis Intervention
    • -Client may not be present
    • -Assess both past and present coping behaviors
    • -Overall strategy increases remobilization and retun to previous LOF
  56. Inferential Statistics
    Parametric types of tests
    • -Analysis of Variance aka ANOVA aka F test (compares meas of more than two groups)
    • -t test (compares means of two groups)
    • -Pearsons Rho or Pearsons R (compares the associatio or correlation between two groups)
  57. Descriptive statistics
    Nonparametric tests
    • -Chi-square test (most common. compares the observed value with the expected)
    • -Spearman Rho (a non parametric correlational)
  58. Correlation
    Positive Association
    As one goes up the other goes up, as one goes down the other goes down
  59. Correlation
    Negative or inverse Association
    As one goes up other goes down, as one goes down other goes up.
  60. Standard deviation
    Square root of the variance. The standard deviation is one piece of the cariance and will always be smaller.
  61. Standard score
    z score, t score
  62. ABAC, Within Series Design
    When two techniques are used in order.
  63. Interactionism
    deals with the development of the individual with endogenous and environmental factors.
  64. Stage of Development
    Birth to two years
    can notice faces and bright objects
  65. Stage of Development
    Two months
    Social smile develops, generally can follow moving objects with eyes, pays attention to speaking voice, grunts and sighs
  66. Stage of Development
    Four months
    Recognizes familiar objects, can activate arms and vocalizes socially (coos), ejoys have people around, hols a rattle for an extended period of tie, recognizes bottle and familiar faces
  67. Stage of Development
    Five months
    Grasps objects independently, stretches out arms when picked up
  68. Stage of Development
    Six months
    teething begins, recognizes strangers but does not generally show fear, turns over from back to stomach
  69. Stage of Development
    Seven months
    Make polysyliabic vowel sounds, sits briefly can transfer objects from one hand to another
  70. Stage of Development
    Eight months
    sits alone easily, clearly recognizes strangers and reacts to them negatively if feel unprotected. When stranger anxiety can first develop.
  71. Stage of Development
    Nine months
    Sits alone and creeps, Dada, mama, baba... Respnds to name
  72. Stage of Development
    Ten months
    Pays attention, plays some games, stands with support
  73. Stage of Development
    eleven months
    stand by self with support
  74. Twelve months
    walks with help, shows affection, jealousy, anger and otehr emotions, enjoy some solid foods.
  75. Stage of Development
    Fifteen months
    walks well alone, generally expected to start walking at 14 months, names familiar pictures and objects.
  76. Stage of Development
    18 months
    walks and can run, know several words and small phrases
  77. Stage of Development
    2 years
    does not like to share possessions, great sense of everything is mine not yours, able to run, syas at least 50 word, can use two word sentences, points to objects in a book
  78. Stage of Development
    6 years
    lose temporary teeth and permanet teeth begin to come in, good coordination and adequate speech, knows colors and numbers well, begin reading
  79. Stage of Development
    10-12 years
    have ability to abstract think and understand many abstract processes.
  80. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Trust versus Mistrust
    0-18m. Outcome trust and optimism
  81. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
    18m-3y. Outcome: Self assertion, self control, and feelings of adequacy
  82. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Initiative versus Guilt
    3-6y. Outcome: Sense of initiative, purpose and direction
  83. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Industry versus Inferiority
    6-12y. Outcome: Productivity and competence in physical, intellectual, and social skills
  84. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Ego Identity versus Role Confusion
    12-18y. Outcome: Integrated image of onself as a unique person
  85. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Intimacy versus Isolation
    19-40y. Outcome: Ability to form close personal relationships and make career commitments.
  86. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Generativity versus Stagnation
    45-65y. Outcome: Concern for future generations
  87. Erikson's Psychosocial Development
    Integrity versus Despair
    65 to death. Outcome: sense life satisfaction and to face death without despair.
  88. Robert Peck's extension of integrity Vs Despair
    • -Ego differentiation vs work role preoccupation
    • -body transcendence vs body preoccupation
    • -ego transcendence vs ego preoccuation
  89. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    Preconventional Morality
    • Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience orientation, moral judgement with the desire to avoid punishment
    • Stage 2: Instrumental-relativism Orientation, motivation is to satisfy own needs.
  90. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    Conventional Morality
    • 10-14y
    • Stage 3: Wants to avoid disapproval
    • Strage 4: Law and order orientation, moral judgements are made in fear of perceived legitimate authority.
  91. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    Post Conventional Morality
    • Stage 5: Legalistic Orientation, individual is concerned with fitting in teh community and abidng societal mores, etc
    • Stage 6: Gains a sense of what is means to believe in a universal ehtical principle orientation, where an individual's conscience determines the criterion for conduct
  92. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    0-2y. Six substages. Individuals look to environment in terms of sensory information and the actions that can be performed (eg. sucking, grasping, and hitting). Achieve object permanence.
  93. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    Preoperational Thought
    2-7y. TWo sub categories, preconceptual (4-7) intuitive (4-7). Individuals engage in symbolic play and interpretation (eg use of language and modeling. **Achieve Irrevesibility (Chidlren are considered egocentric/egocentrism before the age of 6.
  94. Piaget'sStages of Cognitive Development
    Concrete Operational
    ages 7-11. During this stage indivivuals can understand abstract symbols. Here the child is realistic in their way fo thinking. **Acheive Conservation (mass, liquid, volume, weight)
  95. Piaget's Stages of Cogntive Development
    Formal Operations
    the individual develops egocentrism and is able to sefl admire and sefl criticize, full abstract and logical deduction ability is reached. Abstract hinking or "thinking about thinking" becomes possbile **only one-half of all adults achieve this stage.
  96. Introvert and Extrovert are jungian concepts that fir his classification of
  97. A Reality therapist functions in relationship to the client:
  98. Appraisal instrument measures normal functioning as opposed to maximum potential
    Personality inventory
  99. Who is allowed access to patients medical records under HIPPA
  100. Not a nonverbal hindrance to establishing rapport with a patient
    leaning forward
  101. The purpose of Aronson's Jigsaw Classroom technique is to
    Reduce intergroup conflict by facilitating rewarding, intergroup cooperation.
  102. The research of Liberman regarding the results of group therapy indicates that the effect of the group leader is
    Primarly responsibile for group results.
  103. One major consequence of licensing and certification of social workers is that it
    Protects the public from ineligible individuals, many of whome do not have socila work training, by prohibitin their use of the social worker title.
Card Set:
2011-07-28 03:19:31
Social work

for LCSW licensure test
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