Diuretics,F&E,diabets,thyroid

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LaurenFleming
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95019
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Diuretics,F&E,diabets,thyroid
Updated:
2011-07-24 13:35:02
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Pharm
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quiz 2
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  1. Three uses of diuretics include
    treatment of hypertension, mobilization of edematous fluid, prevention of renal failure
  2. What is the is the principal mineralocorticoid of the adrenal cortex
    Aldosterone
  3. Aldosterone stimulates reabsorption of _______from the ______
    • sodium
    • distal nephron
  4. Most diuretics share the same basic mechanism of action; they
    block sodium and chloride reabsorption
  5. The greatest diuresis is produced by drugs that
    have a site of action that is early in the nephron
  6. Adverse effects on the extracellular fluid caused by
    diuretics include _______________, _______________, and
    ________________________.
    • hypovolemia,
    • acid-base imbalance,
    • disturbance of electrolyte levels
  7. The four major categories of diuretic drugs are
    • high-ceiling (loop) diuretics,
    • thiazide diuretics,
    • osmotic diuretics,
    • potassium-sparing diuretics
  8. Situations that require rapid or massive mobilization of fluid are usually treated with
    furosemide
  9. The most widely used thiazide diuretic is
    hydrochlorothiazide
  10. the primary indication for use of hydrochlorothiazide is
    Hypertension
  11. The potassium-sparing diuretics have recently been found to have a positive effect on the treatment of
    Heart Failure
  12. Mannitol promotes diuresis by
    creating an osmotic force in the lumen of the nephron
  13. Patients who should use thiazide diuretics with caution include
    • those with:
    • cardiovascular disease,
    • renal impairment,
    • diabetes mellitus,
    • a history of gout,
    • taking digoxin,
    • taking lithium,
    • taking antihypertensive drugs,
    • who are pregnant,
    • who are breast-feeding
  14. Maintenance of fluid volume and osmolality is primarily the job of the
    kidneys
  15. Volume contraction is defined as a ____________ in total body water;
    decrease
  16. volume expansion is defined as a(n)_____________ in total body water.
    Increase
  17. The normal plasma sodium content is
    135 to 145 mEq/L
  18. When a patient experiences a decrease in the total volume of extracellular fluid and no change occurs in osmolality, the situation is referred to as
    isotonic contraction
  19. A patient with a lack of aldosterone is most likely to develop which disorder of fluid volume and osmolality?
    hypotonic contraction
  20. Use of which drug(s) is most likely to cause respiratory alkalosis?
    aspirin and other salicylates
  21. In most cases, metabolic alkalosis can be corrected by
    infusing a solution of sodium chloride plus potassium chloride
  22. In the presence of extracellular alkalosis, potassium uptake by cells is enhanced, causing
    Hypokalemia
  23. Extracellular acidosis promotes the exit of potassium from cells, thereby causing
    Hyperkalemia
  24. Symptoms of mild intoxication of magnesium include
    • hypotension,
    • sedation,
    • electrocardiographic changes
  25. At higher intoxication concentrations of magnesium symptoms include
    • respiratory paralysis,
    • cardiac arrest
  26. Intravenous (IV) solutions of potassium chloride
    must be diluted to ______________ and infused _____________________.
    • 40 mEq/L,
    • slowly (generally no faster than 10 mEq/hr in adults)
  27. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes result from a combination of _________ and__________.
    • insulin resistance,
    • impaired insulin secretion
  28. The acute complications seen in patients with type 1 diabetes are __________ and __________.
    • hyperglycemia,
    • hypoglycemia
  29. What is the major cause of blindness among American adults.
    Diabetes
  30. Diabetes that appears during pregnancy is referred to as
    gestational diabetes
  31. What is now the standard way to monitor diabetes therapy
    Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels
  32. What is an index of average glucose levels over the preceding 2 to 3 months.
    Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c
  33. What is prepared by conjugating regular insulin with protamine, thereby causing a delayed action and extended action
    NPH neutral promazine Hagedorn insulin
  34. Which type of insulin may be administered intravenously?
    Regular
  35. Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level of less than
    50 mg/dL
  36. Which drug discussed, promotes water retention and can cause weight gain and edema?
    rosiglitazone
  37. The three principal actions of thyroid hormones are to
    • stimulate energy use,
    • stimulate the heart,
    • promote growth and development
  38. Thyroid hormones are eliminated primarily by_______metabolism
    Hepatic
  39. Hypothyroidism can occur at any age. In the adult, mild deficiency of thyroid hormone is referred to as
    Hypothyroidism
  40. severe deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults is called
    myxedema
  41. When hypothyroidism occurs in infancy, the resulting condition is called
    cretinism
  42. The clinical presentation of cretinism includes the development of _________ and _______.
    • mental retardation,
    • derangement of growth
  43. A child with cretinism develops
    • a large protruding tongue,
    • a potbelly,
    • a dwarfish stature
  44. A child with cretinism causes Development of the
    what to be impaired
    • nervous system,
    • bones,
    • teeth,
    • muscles
  45. What is the most common cause of excessive thyroid hormone secretion.
    Graves Disease
  46. For the treatment of Graves’ disease what is used
    propranolol
  47. Propranolol is used as an
    adjunctive therapy to suppress tachycardia by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the heart
  48. What can be used to treat severe exophthalmos
    oral glucocorticoids
  49. The most serious toxicity associated with the use of propylthiouracil is
    agranulocytosis
  50. The advantages of treatment with iodine-131 include
    • It is inexpensive;
    • patients are spared the risks,
    • discomfort, and expense of thyroid surgery;
    • death from iodine-131 treatment has never occurred nor is it ever likely to occur;
    • no tissue other than the thyroid is injured
  51. Patients taking iodine-131 should be told that responses usually take __________ to develop fully.
    2 to 3 months

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