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Three uses of diuretics include
treatment of hypertension, mobilization of edematous fluid, prevention of renal failure
What is the is the principal mineralocorticoid of the adrenal cortex
Aldosterone stimulates reabsorption of _______from the ______
Most diuretics share the same basic mechanism of action; they
block sodium and chloride reabsorption
The greatest diuresis is produced by drugs that
have a site of action that is early in the nephron
Adverse effects on the extracellular fluid caused by
diuretics include _______________, _______________, and
- acid-base imbalance,
- disturbance of electrolyte levels
The four major categories of diuretic drugs are
- high-ceiling (loop) diuretics,
- thiazide diuretics,
- osmotic diuretics,
- potassium-sparing diuretics
Situations that require rapid or massive mobilization of fluid are usually treated with
The most widely used thiazide diuretic is
the primary indication for use of hydrochlorothiazide is
The potassium-sparing diuretics have recently been found to have a positive effect on the treatment of
Mannitol promotes diuresis by
creating an osmotic force in the lumen of the nephron
Patients who should use thiazide diuretics with caution include
- those with:
- cardiovascular disease,
- renal impairment,
- diabetes mellitus,
- a history of gout,
- taking digoxin,
- taking lithium,
- taking antihypertensive drugs,
- who are pregnant,
- who are breast-feeding
Maintenance of fluid volume and osmolality is primarily the job of the
Volume contraction is defined as a ____________ in total body water;
volume expansion is defined as a(n)_____________ in total body water.
The normal plasma sodium content is
135 to 145 mEq/L
When a patient experiences a decrease in the total volume of extracellular fluid and no change occurs in osmolality, the situation is referred to as
A patient with a lack of aldosterone is most likely to develop which disorder of fluid volume and osmolality?
Use of which drug(s) is most likely to cause respiratory alkalosis?
aspirin and other salicylates
In most cases, metabolic alkalosis can be corrected by
infusing a solution of sodium chloride plus potassium chloride
In the presence of extracellular alkalosis, potassium uptake by cells is enhanced, causing
Extracellular acidosis promotes the exit of potassium from cells, thereby causing
Symptoms of mild intoxication of magnesium include
- electrocardiographic changes
At higher intoxication concentrations of magnesium symptoms include
- respiratory paralysis,
- cardiac arrest
Intravenous (IV) solutions of potassium chloride
must be diluted to ______________ and infused _____________________.
- 40 mEq/L,
- slowly (generally no faster than 10 mEq/hr in adults)
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes result from a combination of _________ and__________.
- insulin resistance,
- impaired insulin secretion
The acute complications seen in patients with type 1 diabetes are __________ and __________.
What is the major cause of blindness among American adults.
Diabetes that appears during pregnancy is referred to as
What is now the standard way to monitor diabetes therapy
Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels
What is an index of average glucose levels over the preceding 2 to 3 months.
Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c
What is prepared by conjugating regular insulin with protamine, thereby causing a delayed action and extended action
NPH neutral promazine Hagedorn insulin
Which type of insulin may be administered intravenously?
Hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level of less than
Which drug discussed, promotes water retention and can cause weight gain and edema?
The three principal actions of thyroid hormones are to
- stimulate energy use,
- stimulate the heart,
- promote growth and development
Thyroid hormones are eliminated primarily by_______metabolism
Hypothyroidism can occur at any age. In the adult, mild deficiency of thyroid hormone is referred to as
severe deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults is called
When hypothyroidism occurs in infancy, the resulting condition is called
The clinical presentation of cretinism includes the development of _________ and _______.
- mental retardation,
- derangement of growth
A child with cretinism develops
- a large protruding tongue,
- a potbelly,
- a dwarfish stature
A child with cretinism causes Development of the
what to be impaired
- nervous system,
What is the most common cause of excessive thyroid hormone secretion.
For the treatment of Graves’ disease what is used
Propranolol is used as an
adjunctive therapy to suppress tachycardia by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the heart
What can be used to treat severe exophthalmos
The most serious toxicity associated with the use of propylthiouracil is
The advantages of treatment with iodine-131 include
- It is inexpensive;
- patients are spared the risks,
- discomfort, and expense of thyroid surgery;
- death from iodine-131 treatment has never occurred nor is it ever likely to occur;
- no tissue other than the thyroid is injured
Patients taking iodine-131 should be told that responses usually take __________ to develop fully.
2 to 3 months