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Facilitates exchange of materials, providing a rapid long-distance internal transport system that brings resources close enough to cells for diffusion to occur.
Open Circulatory System
Circulating fluid is pumped through open-ended vessels and flows out among the cells. - Example: arthropods (most invertebrates)
Closed Circulatory System
Circulating fluid is confined to vessels and is distinct from the fluid found around cells (interstitial fluid). Example: Some invertebrates, vertebrates.
Open v. Closed
Contains both the heart and blood vessels.
Atria - receive blood
Ventricles - pump blood
Arteries - carry blood from heart
Arterioles - connect arteries to capillaries
Capillaries - infiltrate every organ
Venules - connect capillaries to veins
Veins - carry blood to heart
Double Circulatory System
- Blood is trans-ported through both pulmonary and systemic circuits.
- 1) Pulmonary circuit
- 2) Systemic circuit
- 3) Heart
Blood travels between the heart and lungs
Blood travels between the heart and rest of body
- Muscular organ consisting of four chambers, pumping blood throughout body.
- 1) Atria: Collect blood returning to heart and pump it into ventricles; Ventricles – pump blood.
- 2) Ventricles: Pump blood out of heart to the other body organs; more powerful than atria.
- 3) Valves: Prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction.
Prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction.
Pump blood out of heart to the other body organs; more powerful than atria.
Collect blood returning to heart and pump it into ventricles; Ventricles – pump blood.
Defect in a valve in which blood squirts back through creating a hissing sound.
Sets rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract. Located in wall of rt. atrium.
(AV) node – relay which in-sures ventricles contract after atria (0.1 sec). Located in wall btw. rt. atrium & rt. ventricle.
- 1) Connective tissue with elastic fibers (outer).
- 2) Smooth muscle with elastic fibers (middle).
- 3) Endothelium (inner).
Hydrostatic pressure that blood exerts against the walls of vessels which propels blood.
*Much greater in arteries than veins
*Gravity affects bp in larger land animals
Humans: heart - head = 0.35m, 27 mm Hg
Giraffe: heart - head = 2.5 m, 250 mm Hg
Dinosaurs: heart - head = 10 m, 760 mm Hg
Rhythmic contractions of arteries caused by pressure of blood forced into arteries during systole.
Systole = contraction (120).
Diastole = relaxation (80).
High blood pressure
Liquid matrix with cells in suspension (90% water; 55% of blood composition.
Plasma proteins – buffer, maintain osmotic balance, contribute to blood’s viscosity.
- 1) Most numerous (25 trillion
- / 5L).
250 mil. molecules Hb/RBC
- 2) Small (7 – 8.5 µm in
- 3) Function: Transportation
- 4) Anemia: An abnormally low number of
- red blood cells or amount of Hb.
- 5) Mammalian RBC’s lack nuclei
- & mitochondria (ATP generated by anaerobic metabolism).
- protein that transports oxygen.
- Each Hb binds 4
- mols. of O2
- Each RBC carries1
- bil. mols. of O2
- 1)25 – 30 billion / 5L
- 2)Large, nucleated – 5 different types
- 3)Function: Spend majority of time patrolling for pathogens.
- 4)Leukemia: Cancerous lines of stem cells that produce WBC’s.
Cancerous lines of stem cells that produce WBC’s.
1. Fragments of cells (2 – 3 µm in diameter)
2. Lack nuclei.
3. Originate in bone marrow.
4. Function: Blood clotting.
Platelets in Blood
- Injuries trigger self-sealing ma-terials in blood to stop
- bleeding: Fibrin - active clotting factor. Platelets - recruited to plug bleed.
- 2) Thrombus: Formation of clot in
- absence of injury, coagulating inside a blood vessel.
- 3) Embolus: Traveling clot
Formation of clot in absence of injury, coagulating inside a blood vessel.
Disorders of the heart and blood vessels.
1)Account for more than 50% of US deaths.
a) Genetic predisposition
b) Sedentary lifestyle
Hardening/narrowing of arteries.
Death of cardiac tissue due to prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries.
Death of nervous tissue in the brain due to blockage or rupture of arteries in the head.
- Animal’s body part where gas is exchanged
- 1)Gas exchange occurs by diffusion.
- 2)Moist, thin with large surface area.
- 3)Larger in endotherms than ectotherms (metabolic activity).
Extensions or outfoldings of the body’s surface in aquatic animals.
Great amount of surface area
Can remove 80% of dissolved O2 in water
- Air tubes branching through-out the body of insects.
- Trachea open to the outside
- Finest branches extend to surface of almost every cell.
- a specific region – uses circulatory system to expand functions
*Found in snails, spiders, and terrestrial vertebrates.
Alternate inhalation/exhalation of air; ventilates lungs.
Sheet of skeletal muscle that increases lung volume when contracted.