Bio 004, College of the Desert

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Mattyj1388
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95040
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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2011-07-24 15:47:50
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Chapter23 COD Circulation Respiration
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  1. CirculatorySystem

    Facilitates exchange of materials, providing a rapid long-distance internal transport system that brings resources close enough to cells for diffusion to occur.

  2. Open Circulatory System

    Circulating fluid is pumped through open-ended vessels and flows out among the cells. - Example: arthropods (most invertebrates)

  3. Closed Circulatory System

    Circulating fluid is confined to vessels and is distinct from the fluid found around cells (interstitial fluid). Example: Some invertebrates, vertebrates.

  4. Open v. Closed
    Circulatory Systems
    • Open: Requires less energy in operation & maintenance and provides support during molting.

    • 2. Closed: More efficient at moving materials in highly developed vertebrates.

  5. Cardiovascular System
    • Contains both the heart and blood vessels.

    • Atria - receive blood

    • Ventricles - pump blood

    • Arteries - carry blood from heart

    • Arterioles - connect arteries to capillaries

    • Capillaries - infiltrate every organ

    • Venules - connect capillaries to veins

    • Veins - carry blood to heart

  6. Double Circulatory System
    • Blood is trans-ported through both pulmonary and systemic circuits.
    • 1) Pulmonary circuit
    • 2) Systemic circuit
    • 3) Heart
  7. Pulmonary circuit
    Blood travels between the heart and lungs
  8. Systemic circuit
    Blood travels between the heart and rest of body
  9. Heart
    • Muscular organ consisting of four chambers, pumping blood throughout body.
    • 1) Atria: Collect blood returning to heart and pump it into ventricles; Ventricles – pump blood.
    • 2) Ventricles: Pump blood out of heart to the other body organs; more powerful than atria.
    • 3) Valves: Prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction.
  10. Valves

    Prevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction.

  11. Ventricles
    Pump blood out of heart to the other body organs; more powerful than atria.
  12. Atria

    Collect blood returning to heart and pump it into ventricles; Ventricles – pump blood.

  13. Cardiac cycle
    • 1 complete cycle of pumping and filling

    • Systole = contraction

    • Diastole = relaxation

    • Heart rate = number of beats/minute (60 – 80)

  14. Heart murmur
    Defect in a valve in which blood squirts back through creating a hissing sound.
  15. Sinoatrial node

    Sets rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract. Located in wall of rt. atrium.

  16. Atrioventricular node

    (AV) node – relay which in-sures ventricles contract after atria (0.1 sec). Located in wall btw. rt. atrium & rt. ventricle.

  17. Blood vessels
    three layers
    • 1) Connective tissue with elastic fibers (outer).
    • 2) Smooth muscle with elastic fibers (middle).
    • 3) Endothelium (inner).
  18. Blood pressure
    • Hydrostatic pressure that blood exerts against the walls of vessels which propels blood.

    • *Much greater in arteries than veins

    • *Gravity affects bp in larger land animals

    • Blood Pressure

    • Humans: heart - head = 0.35m, 27 mm Hg

    • Giraffe: heart - head = 2.5 m, 250 mm Hg

    • Dinosaurs: heart - head = 10 m, 760 mm Hg

  19. Pulse
    • Rhythmic contractions of arteries caused by pressure of blood forced into arteries during systole.

    • Systole = contraction (120).

    • Diastole = relaxation (80).

  20. Hypertension
    High blood pressure
  21. Plasma
    • Liquid matrix with cells in suspension (90% water; 55% of blood composition.

    • Plasma proteins – buffer, maintain osmotic balance, contribute to blood’s viscosity.

  22. Erythrocytes (RBC’s)

    • 1) Most numerous (25 trillion
    • / 5L).

    • 2) Small (7 – 8.5 µm in
    • diameter).
    • 3) Function: Transportation
    • 4) Anemia: An abnormally low number of
    • red blood cells or amount of Hb.
    • 5) Mammalian RBC’s lack nuclei
    • & mitochondria (ATP generated by anaerobic metabolism).
    • 6)
    • Hemoglobin:
    • Iron-containing
    • protein that transports oxygen.

    250 mil. molecules Hb/RBC

    • Each Hb binds 4
    • mols. of O2
    • Each RBC carries1
    • bil. mols. of O2
  23. Leukocytes (WBC’s)
    • 1)25 – 30 billion / 5L
    • 2)Large, nucleated – 5 different types
    • 3)Function: Spend majority of time patrolling for pathogens.
    • 4)Leukemia: Cancerous lines of stem cells that produce WBC’s.
  24. Leukemia
    Cancerous lines of stem cells that produce WBC’s.
  25. Platelets
    • 1. Fragments of cells (2 – 3 µm in diameter)

    • 2. Lack nuclei.

    • 3. Originate in bone marrow.

    • 4. Function: Blood clotting.

  26. Platelets in Blood
    Clotting
    • 1)
    • Injuries trigger self-sealing ma-terials in blood to stop
    • bleeding: Fibrin - active clotting factor. Platelets - recruited to plug bleed.

    • 2) Thrombus: Formation of clot in
    • absence of injury, coagulating inside a blood vessel.
    • 3) Embolus: Traveling clot
  27. Embolus
    Traveling clot
  28. Thrombus
    Formation of clot in absence of injury, coagulating inside a blood vessel.
  29. Cardiovascular Disease
    • Disorders of the heart and blood vessels.

    • 1)Account for more than 50% of US deaths.

    • 2) Causes:

    • a) Genetic predisposition

    • b) Sedentary lifestyle

    • c) Diet

    • d) Smoking

  30. Artherosclerosis
    Hardening/narrowing of arteries.
  31. Heart attack
    Death of cardiac tissue due to prolonged blockage of one or more coronary arteries.
  32. Stroke

    Death of nervous tissue in the brain due to blockage or rupture of arteries in the head.

  33. Respiratory Surfaces
    • Animal’s body part where gas is exchanged
    • 1)Gas exchange occurs by diffusion.
    • 2)Moist, thin with large surface area.
    • 3)Larger in endotherms than ectotherms (metabolic activity).
  34. Gills
    • Extensions or outfoldings of the body’s surface in aquatic animals.

    • Great amount of surface area

    • Can remove 80% of dissolved O2 in water

  35. Tracheal System
    • Air tubes branching through-out the body of insects.
    • Trachea open to the outside
    • Finest branches extend to surface of almost every cell.
  36. Lungs
    • Restricted to

    • a specific region – uses circulatory system to expand functions
    • *Found in snails, spiders, and terrestrial vertebrates.

    • 1) Breathing

    • 2) Diaphragm

  37. Breathing
    Alternate inhalation/exhalation of air; ventilates lungs.
  38. Diaphragm
    Sheet of skeletal muscle that increases lung volume when contracted.

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