Bio 004, College of the Desert
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The creation of off-spring that are genetically identical to the adult; requires only one parent
Cell divides into two genetically identical offspring cells. Example: bacteria.
Separation of a parent organism into two or more individuals of approximately equal size. Example: sea anemone.
Breaking of a parent body into multiple pieces.
Regrowth of two+ individuals from fragmented pieces. Example: starfish.
New individuals arising from out-growths of existing ones. Example: Hydra.
Situation in which the egg develops without being fertilized. Example: Jurassic Park dinosaurs.
- Creation of a new off-spring from the fusion of two gametes form-ing a zygote.
- Organs that produce gametes.
- a)Ovaries: Female gonads, produce eggs.
- b)Testes: Male gonads, produce sperm.
An organism with both male and female reproductive systems. Example: earthworms.
- Union of sperm + egg.
- a)External fertilization: Female releases eggs into the environment where the male then fertilizes them (no penetration).
- b) Internal fertilization: Sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within the tract.
- 1) Vagina: Repository for sperm; birth canal.
- 2)Cervix: Neck of uterus - opens into vagina.
- 3)Uterus: Muscular organ that serves as site for pregnancy (womb).
- 4)Follicle: Structure on ovary, contains partially developed egg surrounded by support cells.
- 5)Oviduct: Catches egg, de-livers it to the uterus.
- 6)Endometrium: Thick, muscular wall containing a blood-rich layer of tissue that lines the uterus. Site of embryo implantation.
- 7)Endometriosis: Disorder in which some cells of the uterine lining migrate to an abnormal abdominal location.
- 8) Mammary glands: Present in both sexes, but only produce milk in females.
Testes – male gonads; produce sperm
- Scrotum:Pouch of skin
- outside the abdomen that houses the testes (keeps sperm fertile).
- structure in males. Contains erectile tissue
- that fills with blood, causing an erection during sexual arousal.
- 3)Semen: Fluid that is ejaculated
- from the male during orgasm.
- a)95% = fluid secreted by
- b)5% = 200 – 500 million
- Formation/development of sperm cells.
- 1)Continuous and prolific in adult males.
- 2)New sperm are created every day. Process takes about seven weeks - completed before sperm leaves testes.
- Formation/development of mature eggs.
- 1)Begins at puberty, ends at menopause.
- 2)Females are born with all their eggs. Pauses at birth, resuming at puberty - taking 28 days to mature (cannot be completed without stimulation from a sperm cell ).
Cyclic shedding of the endometrium from the uterus, which occurs in a flow through the cervix and vagina.
Controls maturation and re-lease of the egg from the ovaries.
(uterine) cycle: Uterus prepares for possible implantation of embryo.
Cessation (end) of menstruation and ovulation. Ends after approximately 500 cycles. Occurs between the ages of 45 – 55 years
ways to prevent pregnancy. Tubal ligation, Vasectomy, Rhythm method (natural family planning), Withdrawal, Condoms, Diaphragm, Birth control pills, Morning after pills.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(STD’s): Contagious diseases spread through sexual contact.
1. Viral STD’s
a) Can be controlled by medication.
b) Generally not curable.
c) Symptoms, ability to infect others remain throughout a person’s life.
d) Examples: HIV, herpes I & II.
Carrying of young developing in the female reproductive tract. Humans = 9 months; Mice = 1 month; Elephants = 22 months.
Developmental stage from first division of zygote until body structures be-gin to appear (9th week).
Developmental stage from the 9th week until birth.
Organ that provides nourishment and oxygen to the embryo; helps dispose of metabolic wastes. Amnion – fluid-filled sac; Yolk sac – produces first RBC’s, gamete-forming cells; Allantois – forms part of umbilical cord; Chorion – forms part of placenta.
a)All major organs, body parts, limbs with fingers, toes are developing.
b)Sex can be determined at this stage.
c)Fetus is approximately 2.5 inches long.
- a)General refinement of human features.
- b)Fingernails, toenails, and hair are present, eyes are open, and teeth are forming.
- c)Fetus is approximately 7.5 inches long and weighs about 1 pound.
- a)Circulatory/respiratory systems undergo changes to start breathing air.
- b)Fetus rotates, pointing downward.
- c)At birth, babies on average are 20 inches long and weigh 6 – 10 pounds.
Labor and Delivery
- Labor: Series of strong, rhythmic contractions that result in the birth of the baby.
- a)Estrogen: Triggers formation of oxytocin receptors.
- b)Oxytocin: Stimulates contraction in uterine walls.
Stimulates contraction in uterine walls
Triggers formation of oxytocin receptors
Series of strong, rhythmic contractions that result in the birth of the baby.
Infertility – Males
- 1)Low sperm count.
- 2)Defective sperm.
- 3)Erectile dysfunction.
Infertility – Females
- 1)Lack of eggs or failure to ovulate.
- 2)Blocked oviducts.
- 3)Hormonal imbalances.
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