Bio 004, College of the Desert

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  1. Reproduction
    • The creation of new individuals from existing ones.

    • Asexual reproduction or Sexual reproduction.

  2. Asexual Reproduction
    The creation of off-spring that are genetically identical to the adult; requires only one parent
  3. Binary fission
    Cell divides into two genetically identical offspring cells. Example: bacteria.
  4. Fission
    Separation of a parent organism into two or more individuals of approximately equal size. Example: sea anemone.
  5. Fragmentation
    Breaking of a parent body into multiple pieces.
  6. Regeneration

    Regrowth of two+ individuals from fragmented pieces. Example: starfish.

  7. Budding

    New individuals arising from out-growths of existing ones. Example: Hydra.

  8. Parthenogenesis

    Situation in which the egg develops without being fertilized. Example: Jurassic Park dinosaurs.

  9. Sexual Reproduction
    • Creation of a new off-spring from the fusion of two gametes form-ing a zygote.
    • 1)Egg
    • 2)Sperm
    • 3)zygote
    • 4)Gonads
    • a)Overies
    • b)Testies
    • 5)Hermaphrodite
    • 6)Fertilization
  10. Egg
    female gamete
  11. Sperm
    Male gamete
  12. Zygote
    Fertilized egg
  13. Gonads
    • Organs that produce gametes.
    • a)Ovaries: Female gonads, produce eggs.
    • b)Testes: Male gonads, produce sperm.
  14. Hermaphrodite

    An organism with both male and female reproductive systems. Example: earthworms.

  15. Fertilization
    • Union of sperm + egg.
    • a)External fertilization: Female releases eggs into the environment where the male then fertilizes them (no penetration).
    • b) Internal fertilization: Sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within the tract.
  16. Female Reproductive
    • 1) Vagina: Repository for sperm; birth canal.
    • 2)Cervix: Neck of uterus - opens into vagina.
    • 3)Uterus: Muscular organ that serves as site for pregnancy (womb).
    • 4)Follicle: Structure on ovary, contains partially developed egg surrounded by support cells.
    • 5)Oviduct: Catches egg, de-livers it to the uterus.
    • 6)Endometrium: Thick, muscular wall containing a blood-rich layer of tissue that lines the uterus. Site of embryo implantation.
    • 7)Endometriosis: Disorder in which some cells of the uterine lining migrate to an abnormal abdominal location.
    • 8) Mammary glands: Present in both sexes, but only produce milk in females.
  17. Male Reproductive
    Testes – male gonads; produce sperm

    • 1)
    • Scrotum:
    • Pouch of skin
    • outside the abdomen that houses the testes (keeps sperm fertile).

    • 2)
    • Penis:
    • Copulatory
    • structure in males. Contains erectile tissue
    • that fills with blood, causing an erection during sexual arousal.

    • 3)Semen: Fluid that is ejaculated
    • from the male during orgasm.
    • a)95% = fluid secreted by
    • glands.
    • b)5% = 200 – 500 million
    • sperm.
  18. Spermatogenesis
    • Formation/development of sperm cells.
    • 1)Continuous and prolific in adult males.
    • 2)New sperm are created every day. Process takes about seven weeks - completed before sperm leaves testes.
  19. Oogenesis
    • Formation/development of mature eggs.
    • 1)Begins at puberty, ends at menopause.
    • 2)Females are born with all their eggs. Pauses at birth, resuming at puberty - taking 28 days to mature (cannot be completed without stimulation from a sperm cell ).
  20. Menstruation
    Cyclic shedding of the endometrium from the uterus, which occurs in a flow through the cervix and vagina.
  21. Ovarian cycle

    Controls maturation and re-lease of the egg from the ovaries.

  22. Menstrual cycle

    (uterine) cycle: Uterus prepares for possible implantation of embryo.

  23. Menopause
    Cessation (end) of menstruation and ovulation. Ends after approximately 500 cycles. Occurs between the ages of 45 – 55 years
  24. Contraception
    ways to prevent pregnancy. Tubal ligation, Vasectomy, Rhythm method (natural family planning), Withdrawal, Condoms, Diaphragm, Birth control pills, Morning after pills.
  25. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • (STD’s): Contagious diseases spread through sexual contact.

    • 1. Viral STD’s

    • a) Can be controlled by medication.

    • b) Generally not curable.

    • c) Symptoms, ability to infect others remain throughout a person’s life.

    • d) Examples: HIV, herpes I & II.

  26. Gestation
    Carrying of young developing in the female reproductive tract. Humans = 9 months; Mice = 1 month; Elephants = 22 months.
  27. Embryo
    Developmental stage from first division of zygote until body structures be-gin to appear (9th week).
  28. Fetus
    Developmental stage from the 9th week until birth.
  29. Placenta
    Organ that provides nourishment and oxygen to the embryo; helps dispose of metabolic wastes. Amnion – fluid-filled sac; Yolk sac – produces first RBC’s, gamete-forming cells; Allantois – forms part of umbilical cord; Chorion – forms part of placenta.
  30. First Trimester
    a)All major organs, body parts, limbs with fingers, toes are developing.

    b)Sex can be determined at this stage.

    c)Fetus is approximately 2.5 inches long.
  31. Second Trimester
    • a)General refinement of human features.
    • b)Fingernails, toenails, and hair are present, eyes are open, and teeth are forming.
    • c)Fetus is approximately 7.5 inches long and weighs about 1 pound.
  32. Third Trimester
    • a)Circulatory/respiratory systems undergo changes to start breathing air.
    • b)Fetus rotates, pointing downward.
    • c)At birth, babies on average are 20 inches long and weigh 6 – 10 pounds.
  33. Labor and Delivery
    • Labor: Series of strong, rhythmic contractions that result in the birth of the baby.
    • a)Estrogen: Triggers formation of oxytocin receptors.
    • b)Oxytocin: Stimulates contraction in uterine walls.
  34. Oxytocin
    Stimulates contraction in uterine walls
  35. Estrogen
    Triggers formation of oxytocin receptors
  36. Labor
    Series of strong, rhythmic contractions that result in the birth of the baby.
  37. Infertility – Males
    • 1)Low sperm count.
    • 2)Defective sperm.
    • 3)Erectile dysfunction.
  38. Infertility – Females
    • 1)Lack of eggs or failure to ovulate.
    • 2)Blocked oviducts.
    • 3)Hormonal imbalances.
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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