Bio 004, College of the Desert

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Mattyj1388
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Bio 004, College of the Desert
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2011-07-24 19:40:52
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Chapter27 COD BIO4 Nervous Sensory Motor Systems
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  1. Nervous System

    Coordination, communication, network throughout an animal’s body.

  2. Neuron

    Nerve cells. Estimated 100 billion in brain. Specialized circuits dedicated to specific tasks

  3. Central Nervous System
    Brain + spinal cord.
  4. Peripheral Nervous System
    Nerves that connect the CNS with the rest of the body.
  5. SensoryNeurons

    Transmit information from sensors that detect external stimuli as well as internal conditions. External – light, sound, touch, smell, taste. Internal – blood pressure, blood pH, blood CO2 levels, muscle tension.

  6. Interneurons

    Integrate sensory input, con-siders immediate input, and compares it to past events. Located entirely within CNS; Site of greatest complexity of neural circuits.

  7. Motor Neurons
    Communicate the motor output (command to carry out a particular response) with effectors. Effectors – muscle cells, glands.
  8. Neuron Structural
    Components
    • 1.Dendrites (receive signals)
    • 2.Cell body
    • 3.Axon hillock
    • 4.Axon (transmits signals)
    • 5.Myelin Sheath
    • 6.Synapse
    • 7.Supporting cells
    • 8.Schwann cells
    • 9.Myelin sheath
  9. Supporting cells
    Essential for structural integrity of the nervous system and for normal functioning of neurons. Schwann cells.
  10. Schwann cells
    Cells responsible for the production of the myelin sheath.
  11. Myelin sheath
    Insulating material that en-closes the axon along most of its length.
  12. Multiple Sclerosis
    Disease in which the myelin sheath deteriorates; progressive loss of body function occurs due to disruption of nerve signal.
  13. Synapse
    • Relay point between two neurons.
    • 1)Chemical synapse
    • 2)Neurotransmitter
  14. Chemical synapse
    Neurotransmitter is released across the synapse from pre-synaptic neuron to postsynaptic neurons.
  15. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical that carries information from a neuron to another neuron or an effector cell (muscle, gland).
  16. Central Nervous
    System
    • 1)Comprised of brain & spinal cord.
    • 2)Located on the dorsal side of the body.
    • 3)Surrounded by cerebral spinal fluid.
  17. Peripheral Nervous
    System
    • 1)Comprised of cranial
    • & spinal nerves
    • a)cranial nerves: Brain → head/upper body
    • b)spinal nerves: Spinal cord → lower body
    • 2)Somatic nervous system: Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles, mainly in response to
    • external stimuli (voluntary).
    • 3)
    • Autonomic nervous system: Controls smooth &
    • cardiac muscle, organs of digestive, cardio-vascular, excretory, and endocrine
    • systems (involuntary).

    • a)sympathetic division: Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis
    • (fight or flight).
    • b)
    • parasympathetic division: Corresponds to calming,
    • resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
  18. Somatic nervous system
    Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles, mainly in response to external stimuli (voluntary).
  19. Autonomic nervous system
    • Controls smooth & cardiac muscle, organs of digestive, cardio-vascular, excretory, and endocrine systems (involuntary).
    • a)sympathetic division: Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis(fight or flight).
    • b)parasympathetic division: Corresponds to calming, resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
  20. parasympathetic division
    Corresponds to calming, resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
  21. sympathetic division
    Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis (fight or flight).
  22. Brain
    • 1)Brainstem
    • 2)Cerebellum
    • 3)Cerebrum
    • 4)Thalamus
    • 5)Hypothalamus
  23. Brainstem
    Functions in homeostasis, coordination of movement, conduction of information to higher brain centers. Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain.
  24. Cerebellum

    Coordination of movement and learning, remembering motor responses.

  25. Cerebrum
    Functions in sophisticated integration, memory learning, speech, emotions, formulates complex behavioral responses.
  26. Thalamus
    Main input center for sensory information going to the brain and motor information leaving the brain (data sorting).
  27. Hypothalamus

    Functions in homeostasis, pituitary gland control, biological clock.

  28. Mechanoreceptors
    • Sense physical deformation caused by stimuli (pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound). Gravity; Sound.

    • 1) Sound receptors: Vibrations perceived by tympanic membrane are transmitted across bones of middle ear (stapes, incus, malleus) to inner ear. Hearing ranges: Humans: 20,000 Hz; Canines: 40,000 Hz; Bats: 100,000 Hz.

    • 2)Utricle/saccule: Chambers in inner ear that respond to changes in head position with respect to gravity.

    • 3) Otoliths: CaCO3 particles in a chamber that detects gravity by position.

    • 4) Lateral line system: Detects low frequency waves generated by vibrations in water.

    • 5)Air (swim) bladder: Vibrates in response to sound, transferring signal to brain.

  29. Sound receptors
    Vibrations perceived by tympanic membrane are transmitted across bones of middle ear (stapes, incus, malleus) to inner ear. Hearing ranges: Humans: 20,000 Hz; Canines: 40,000 Hz; Bats: 100,000 Hz
  30. Utricle/saccule
    Chambers in inner ear that respond to changes in head position with respect to gravity
  31. Otoliths
    CaCO3 particles in a chamber that detects gravity by position.
  32. Lateral line system
    Detects low frequency waves generated by vibrations in water.
  33. Air (swim) bladder
    Vibrates in response to sound, transferring signal to brain.
  34. Chemoreceptors
    • Transmit information about total solute concentration or individual kinds of molecules.

    • 1)Gustation: (taste) Detecting molecules present in solution.

    • 2)Olfaction: (smell) – detecting molecules present in air.

  35. Electomagnetic Receptors

    Detect forms of energy including visible light, electricity, & magnetism. Photoreceptors – light, Infrared receptors – body heat, Electroreceptors – electrical impulses, Magnetoreceptors – magnetic fields.

  36. Thermoreceptors
    Detect heat or cold for both surface and body core temperatures.
  37. Nociceptors
    Class of naked dendrites in the epidermis of the skin; pain receptors.
  38. Rods
    Sensitive to light, but do not distinguish colors; night vision (max. in nocturnals). 125 million per eye.
  39. Cones
    Less sensitive to light, but can distinguish colors; day vision (max. in diurnals). 6 million per eye.
  40. Color Vision
    • Found in all vertebrate classes, but not in all species.

    • Most fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds have strong color vision.

    • Humans, other primates are among minority of mammals with color vision.

  41. Three Main Functions
    of a Skeleton
    • 1)Support.
    • 2)Protection.
    • 3)Movement.
  42. Three
    main types of skeletons
    • 1)Hydrostatic skeleton.
    • 2)Exoskeleton.
    • 3)Endoskeleton.
  43. Hydrostatic Skeleton
    Fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment; muscles change shape in fluid-filled compartments.
  44. Exoskeleton
    Hard encasement deposited on the surface of the animal; periodically shed in order to produce a larger one due to growth.
  45. Endoskeleton
    • Hard supporting elements buried within soft tissues of an animal.

    • Sponges - reinforced with spicules.

    • Echinoderms - reinforced with hard plates (ossicles) beneath their spiny skin.

    • Vertebrates – reinforced.
  46. Body Posture
    Position of legs to main body, an important structural feature in birds and mammals. Muscles and tendons bear most of the load.
  47. Muscles
    • Work in antagonistic pairs in order for body parts to move in opposite directions.

    • Flex arm - biceps contract/triceps relax. Extend arm - triceps contract/biceps relax.
  48. Flying – Locomotion
    gravity is a major problem that wings must overcome with lift shape of wings determines type of flight adaptations reduce body mass fusiform shape for aerodynamics.
  49. Swimming - locomotion
    • gravity is mostly overcome due to animals finding buoyancy in water.
    • friction is a major problem because water is denser than air.
  50. Walking, Running,
    Hopping - locomotion
    • friction is a minor problem because air is less dense than water.
    • gravity is a major problem due to the animals’ necessity to support itself.
  51. Costs
    • 1)Flying and running require more energy than swimming.
    • 2)Swimming is the most energy-efficient mode of locomotion.
    • 3)Larger animals require more energy than smaller animals.

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