Coordination, communication, network throughout an animal’s body.
Nerve cells. Estimated 100 billion in brain. Specialized circuits dedicated to specific tasks
Transmit information from sensors that detect external stimuli as well as internal conditions. External – light, sound, touch, smell, taste. Internal – blood pressure, blood pH, blood CO2 levels, muscle tension.
Integrate sensory input, con-siders immediate input, and compares it to past events. Located entirely within CNS; Site of greatest complexity of neural circuits.
Coordination of movement and learning, remembering motor responses.
Functions in homeostasis, pituitary gland control, biological clock.
Sense physical deformation caused by stimuli (pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound). Gravity; Sound.
Transmit information about total solute concentration or individual kinds of molecules.
Detect forms of energy including visible light, electricity, & magnetism. Photoreceptors – light, Infrared receptors – body heat, Electroreceptors – electrical impulses, Magnetoreceptors – magnetic fields.
Found in all vertebrate classes, but not in all species.
Most fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds have strong color vision.
Humans, other primates are among minority of mammals with color vision.
Hard supporting elements buried within soft tissues of an animal.
Sponges - reinforced with spicules.
Echinoderms - reinforced with hard plates (ossicles) beneath their spiny skin.
Work in antagonistic pairs in order for body parts to move in opposite directions.