Bio 004, College of the Desert
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Coordination, communication, network throughout an animal’s body.
Nerve cells. Estimated 100 billion in brain. Specialized circuits dedicated to specific tasks
Central Nervous System
Brain + spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves that connect the CNS with the rest of the body.
Transmit information from sensors that detect external stimuli as well as internal conditions. External – light, sound, touch, smell, taste. Internal – blood pressure, blood pH, blood CO2 levels, muscle tension.
Integrate sensory input, con-siders immediate input, and compares it to past events. Located entirely within CNS; Site of greatest complexity of neural circuits.
Communicate the motor output (command to carry out a particular response) with effectors. Effectors – muscle cells, glands.
- 1.Dendrites (receive signals)
- 2.Cell body
- 3.Axon hillock
- 4.Axon (transmits signals)
- 5.Myelin Sheath
- 7.Supporting cells
- 8.Schwann cells
- 9.Myelin sheath
Essential for structural integrity of the nervous system and for normal functioning of neurons. Schwann cells.
Cells responsible for the production of the myelin sheath.
Insulating material that en-closes the axon along most of its length.
Disease in which the myelin sheath deteriorates; progressive loss of body function occurs due to disruption of nerve signal.
- Relay point between two neurons.
- 1)Chemical synapse
Neurotransmitter is released across the synapse from pre-synaptic neuron to postsynaptic neurons.
Chemical that carries information from a neuron to another neuron or an effector cell (muscle, gland).
- 1)Comprised of brain & spinal cord.
- 2)Located on the dorsal side of the body.
- 3)Surrounded by cerebral spinal fluid.
- 1)Comprised of cranial
- & spinal nerves
- a)cranial nerves: Brain → head/upper body
- b)spinal nerves: Spinal cord → lower body
- 2)Somatic nervous system: Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles, mainly in response to
- external stimuli (voluntary).
- Autonomic nervous system: Controls smooth &
- cardiac muscle, organs of digestive, cardio-vascular, excretory, and endocrine
- systems (involuntary).
- a)sympathetic division: Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis
- (fight or flight).
- parasympathetic division: Corresponds to calming,
- resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
Somatic nervous system
Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles, mainly in response to external stimuli (voluntary).
Autonomic nervous system
- Controls smooth & cardiac muscle, organs of digestive, cardio-vascular, excretory, and endocrine systems (involuntary).
- a)sympathetic division: Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis(fight or flight).
- b)parasympathetic division: Corresponds to calming, resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
Corresponds to calming, resetting normal functions, and homeostasis (rest and digest).
Corresponds to arousal, energy generation, and homeostasis (fight or flight).
Functions in homeostasis, coordination of movement, conduction of information to higher brain centers. Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain.
Coordination of movement and learning, remembering motor responses.
Functions in sophisticated integration, memory learning, speech, emotions, formulates complex behavioral responses.
Main input center for sensory information going to the brain and motor information leaving the brain (data sorting).
Functions in homeostasis, pituitary gland control, biological clock.
Sense physical deformation caused by stimuli (pressure, touch, stretch, motion, and sound). Gravity; Sound.
1) Sound receptors: Vibrations perceived by tympanic membrane are transmitted across bones of middle ear (stapes, incus, malleus) to inner ear. Hearing ranges: Humans: 20,000 Hz; Canines: 40,000 Hz; Bats: 100,000 Hz.
2)Utricle/saccule: Chambers in inner ear that respond to changes in head position with respect to gravity.
3) Otoliths: CaCO3 particles in a chamber that detects gravity by position.
4) Lateral line system: Detects low frequency waves generated by vibrations in water.
5)Air (swim) bladder: Vibrates in response to sound, transferring signal to brain.
Vibrations perceived by tympanic membrane are transmitted across bones of middle ear (stapes, incus, malleus) to inner ear. Hearing ranges: Humans: 20,000 Hz; Canines: 40,000 Hz; Bats: 100,000 Hz
Chambers in inner ear that respond to changes in head position with respect to gravity
CaCO3 particles in a chamber that detects gravity by position.
Lateral line system
Detects low frequency waves generated by vibrations in water.
Air (swim) bladder
Vibrates in response to sound, transferring signal to brain.
Transmit information about total solute concentration or individual kinds of molecules.
1)Gustation: (taste) Detecting molecules present in solution.
2)Olfaction: (smell) – detecting molecules present in air.
Detect forms of energy including visible light, electricity, & magnetism. Photoreceptors – light, Infrared receptors – body heat, Electroreceptors – electrical impulses, Magnetoreceptors – magnetic fields.
Detect heat or cold for both surface and body core temperatures.
Class of naked dendrites in the epidermis of the skin; pain receptors.
Sensitive to light, but do not distinguish colors; night vision (max. in nocturnals). 125 million per eye.
Less sensitive to light, but can distinguish colors; day vision (max. in diurnals). 6 million per eye.
Found in all vertebrate classes, but not in all species.
Most fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds have strong color vision.
Humans, other primates are among minority of mammals with color vision.
Three Main Functions
of a Skeleton
main types of skeletons
- 1)Hydrostatic skeleton.
Fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment; muscles change shape in fluid-filled compartments.
Hard encasement deposited on the surface of the animal; periodically shed in order to produce a larger one due to growth.
Hard supporting elements buried within soft tissues of an animal.
Sponges - reinforced with spicules.
Echinoderms - reinforced with hard plates (ossicles) beneath their spiny skin.
- Vertebrates – reinforced.
Position of legs to main body, an important structural feature in birds and mammals. Muscles and tendons bear most of the load.
Flying – Locomotion
gravity is a major problem that wings must overcome with lift shape of wings determines type of flight adaptations reduce body mass fusiform shape for aerodynamics.
Swimming - locomotion
- gravity is mostly overcome due to animals finding buoyancy in water.
- friction is a major problem because water is denser than air.
Hopping - locomotion
- friction is a minor problem because air is less dense than water.
- gravity is a major problem due to the animals’ necessity to support itself.
- 1)Flying and running require more energy than swimming.
- 2)Swimming is the most energy-efficient mode of locomotion.
- 3)Larger animals require more energy than smaller animals.
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