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What are the 3 differences between drug actions on CNS and ANS
- 1. CNS includes inhibitory neurotransmitters
- 2. Blood brain Barrier is involved
- 3. Hyperpolarization
What are the 2 neurotransmitter classifications in the CNS
- 1. Excitatory
- 2. Inhibitory
Name the 5 Excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS?
- 1. Epinephrine
- 2. Noraepinephrine
- 3. Achetylcholine
- 4. Glutamate
- 5. 5-HT
Name the 2 inhibitory Neurotransmittersin the CNS?
What is a Seizure?
A small population of neurons that goes through this rhythmic synchronous firing that causes a transient alteration in behaviour. Think of arrhythia of the brain.
What is a convulsion?
the jerkings and the spasms. (Commonly confused with seizures)
What causes seizures?
- 1. Hyperexcitability of neurons
- 2. Mechanical
- 3. Sudden drug withdrawal
- 4. Toxins
- 5. Heredity
- 6. Idiopathic
What are Partial seizures?
siezures that happen only at the location where the bad nuerons exist. This is where most seizures happen
What are generalized seizures?
When bad neurons recruit other neurons during a seizure and convulsions usually proceed.
What are the signs of partial seizures?
1. No loss of consciousness, just tingling or numbing
What are the signs of generalized seizures?
- Tonic/Clonic (muscle control & jerking)
- Absence (Freezing up)
- Myoclonic (Brief Shock like)
- Feveral (temp changes)
- Status (never ending)
What are the approaches to Treatment of Seizures?
- 1. Control/Reduce Frequency
- 2. Consider toxicity
- 3. Seizure type determines drug
- 4. Monotherapy
- 5. Polytherapy
- 6. Doses are Titrated
- 7. Don't switch brands
What are the common side effects for seizures?
dizzines, lethargy/fatigue, drowsiness/sedation, ataxia. (Basically slows our brain down)
What drug causes hyperactivity in children?
What drug causes serious blood dyscrasias
What drug causes Gingival hyperplasia?
What drug causes alopecia?
Valproic Acid (Depakene, Depakote)
What drug causes Steven Johnsons sickness?
Which drug inhibits glutamate release?
What is Parkinsons Disease?
A neurodegenerative disorder that happens at the basal ganglia
What is basal ganglia responsible for?
smoothing out muscle movements
What are the 2 neurotransmitters at work with Basal ganglia-Parkinsons?
Dopaminne & Ach
Explain the balance of Dopamin and ACH in Parkinsons's?
Dopamine levels slowly decrease and this improper balance affects motion
What is the basic approach to treatment of Parkinsons?
Restore balance to Dopamine and ACH
What are the basic symptoms of Parkinsons?
- Resting Tremor
- Cogwheel Rigidity
- Difficulty swallowing