A&P Skeletal

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A&P Skeletal
2011-07-24 20:07:58
Anatomy Physiology

The Skeletal system
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  1. 6 Types of Synovial Joints

    Ball and Socket




  2. Pivot Joint
    Atlas /Axis joints
  3. Condyloid Joint
    Metacarpal/Phalanges joints
  4. Gliding Joint
    Wrist/Annkle joints
  5. Hinge Joint
    Elbow/Knee joints
  6. Ball and Socket Joint
    Shoulder/Hip joints
  7. Saddle Joint
    Carpal/Metacarpal, bones of the thumb
  8. Endochondral Ossification
    Formation of the bones of the skeleton

    Hyaline cartilage model - replaced by bone

    Primary ossification
  9. Intramembraneous Ossification
    Formation of the bones of the skull

    Connective tissue -> Osteoblasts -> Ostyocytes surrounded by the matrix
  10. Ossification
    Formation of bones
  11. Bone Growth and Development
    Happens in utero
  12. Osteoclasts
    Bone "breaking" cells

    Break down bone and deposit calcium and phosphorous into the bloodstream
  13. Osteocytes
    Mature bone cells
  14. Osteoblasts
    Bone "building" cells

    Responsible for secreting the matrix material

    (Calcium and Phosphorous)
  15. Osteoprogenitor Cells
    Unspecialized bone cells
  16. Trabeculae
    Bony bars and plates of spongy bone

    Providing support for the bone
  17. Spongy Bone
    Found in the epiphysis of long bones

    Lightweight - designed for strength
  18. Osteons
    Cylindar shaped units containing the matrix and osteocytes

    (Haversion system - "layer cake")
  19. Central Canal
    Center of each osteon

    Where blood vessels and nerves enter the bone
  20. Lacunae
    Tiny chambers containing osteocytes

    Occurs between the Lamella
  21. Lamella
    Contcentric layers of matrix

    Matrix contains calcium and phosphorous salts
  22. Compact Bone
    Dense bone containing osteons
  23. Yellow Marrow
    Contains mostly fat
  24. Medullary Cavity
    "middle" or inside of a long bone

    Surrounded by compat bone

    Contains yellow marrow
  25. Articular Cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphysis
  26. Diaphysis
    "shaft" of a long bone
  27. Epiphysis
    Ends of a long bone
  28. Periosteum
    Fibrous connective tissue

    Continuous with ligaments and tendons

    Covers the bone

    Hard white "coat"
  29. Round Bones
    exa. Patella
  30. Irregular Bones
    exa. Vertabrae
  31. Flat Bones
    Found in cranium mostly

    exa. Frontal Bone, Ribs
  32. Shaft Bones
    Cube shaped

    exa. Tarsals, Carpals
  33. Long Bones
    exa. Femur, Radius, Ulna, Tibia, Fibia
  34. Functions of the Skeletal System
    • 1 - supports the body
    • 2 - protects soft parts
    • 3 - produces blood cells
    • 4 - stores minerals and fat
    • 5 - works with muscles to produce movement
  35. Bursitis
    Inflammation of the Bursae
  36. Bursae
    Fluid filled sacs that ease friction between all parts of the joint
  37. Meniscus
    Crescent shaped cartilage that covers the ends of the bones in the joint
  38. Ligaments
    Composed of dense regular connective tissue

    Binds bone to bone
  39. Synovial Fluid
    Lubricates the joint
  40. Synovial Membrane
    Lining of the joint cavity
  41. Diarthroses Joint
    aka Synovial joint

    Bone ends do not contact one another

    Enclosed in a "capsule"

    Freely movable
  42. Amphiarthrosis Joint
    aka Cartilaginous joint

    Fibrocartilage of hyaline cartilage joins bones

    Slightly movable
  43. Synarthrosis Joint
    aka Fibrous joint

    Connective tissue joins bone to bone

    Typically movable
  44. Scoliosis
    Common in teenage girls

    Abnormal "s" shaped curvature of the spine

    Occurs laterally
  45. Kyphosis

    Common in old age

    Abnormal curvature of the thorasic vertabrae
  46. Lordosis

    Common in pregnancy

    Abnormal curvature in the lumbar vertabrae
  47. Fontanels
    Membranes in newborns where cranial bones have not yet fused together
  48. Sutures
    Immovable joint
  49. Mastoiditis
    Inflammation of the mastoid sinus

    Can result in deafness - if left untreated
  50. Sinuses
    Air space lined with mucour membranes

    Reduces weight in the head

    Named by location

    exa. mastoid sinus drains the middle ear
  51. Axial Skeleton
    Midline of the body

    Skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, rib cage, bones of the middle ear
  52. Bone Repair
    Hematoma Formation - blood clot fills the space

    Fibrocartilage Callus - cartilage replaces the blood clot

    Bony Callus Formation - fibrocartilage replaced by bony callus

    Remodeling - osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
  53. Depressions and Openings
    Hollow spaces

    exa. Foramen, Sinus, Meatus
  54. Projections
    Provide points of attachment for muscles

    exa. Crests, Trochanter, Tuberosity
  55. Articulations
    Often forms a joint

    exa. Condyles, Heads, Processes
  56. Hormones that Regulate Bone Growth


    Growth Hormones
  57. Remodeling of Bones
    Bone is living tissue

    Osteoclasts - break bone down, remove worn out cells, and deposit calcium and phosphorous into the blood

    Osteoblasts - take the calsium and phosohorous from the blood to form new bone
  58. Growth Plate
    Limbs continue to grow as long as the growth plate is present

    Growth is controlled by sex hormones

    Growth stops if plate is broken
  59. Epiphyseal Plate
    "Growth Plate"

    A band of cartilage in spongy bone between the primary and secondary ossification centers
  60. Secondary Ossification
    Occurs after birth

    Area of epiphysis where spingy bone is formed but not broken down