A&P Muscular

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A&P Muscular
2011-07-25 09:04:03
Anatomy Physiology

The Muscular system
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  1. 7 Ways of Naming Muscles
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Direction of fibers
    • Lotation
    • Attachment
    • Number of attachments
    • Action
  2. Myogram
    A graph showing muscle response to electric stimulation
  3. Fatigue
    When muscles relax even though stimulation continues
  4. Tetanic Contraction
    Sustained contraction
  5. Summation
    Increased muscle contractions until maximum contraction is reached
  6. Muscle Twitch
    A single contraction that lasts only a fraction of a second
  7. All-or-None Law
    A muscle fiber contracts completely or not at all
  8. Oxygen Debt
    When muscles use fermentation for energy they incur an oxygen debt

    To repay the debt muscles need to replenish thier creatine phosphate and dispose of lactic acid
  9. Fermentation

    Produces ATP for short bursts of excersise

    Glucose breaks down to lactic acid

    1 of 3 ways ATP is made
  10. Cellular Respirationq

    Takes place in the mitochondria

    Myoglobin pulls O2 out of the blood and makes it available to the mitochondria

    1 of 3 ways ATP is made
  11. Creatine Phosphate Breakdown

    Regenerates ATP

    Quickest way to make ATP available to muscles

    1 of 3 ways ATP is made
  12. Contraction of Smooth Muscle
    Contractions occur very slowly but can last for long periods of time without fatigue

    exa. GI muscles
  13. Smooth Muscle
    Not arraged into myofibrils
  14. Neuromuscular Junction
    Where the axon of the motor neuron meets the muscle fiber
  15. Physiology of Muscle Contraactions
    • 1 - nerve impulse travels down a motor neuron
    • 2 - nerve impulse arrives at the axon terminal of the nerve
    • 3 - synaptic vesicles release ach into the symaptic cleft
    • 4 - ach binds to the receptors of the sarcolemma
    • 5 - calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • 6 - sliding filament theory is initiated
    • 7 - muscles contract
  16. Sliding Filament Theory
    The movement of actin filaments in relation to myosin filaments causeing a muscle to contract
  17. Z-Line
    Area between the sarcomeres
  18. Actin
    Thin filaments
  19. Myosin
    Thick filaments
  20. Sarcomere
    Structural unit of a myofibril

    Contains thick and thin myofilaments
  21. Myofilament
    Thick and think filaments that account for muscle striation and contractions
  22. Myofibril
    A bundle of myofilaments that contract

    Cylinder shaped
  23. Sarcoplaasmic Reticulum
    Smooth ER stores calcium for muscle contraction
  24. T-Tubule
    Extension of sarcolemma extends into the muscle fiber
  25. Myoglobin
    Red pigment that stores oxygen for muscle
  26. Glycogen
    Polysaccharide that stores energy
  27. Sarcoplasm
  28. Sarcolemma
    Plasma membrane
  29. Functions of Skeletal Muscle
    • Supports the body
    • Moves bone and other body parts
    • Maintains constant body temperature
    • Contractions help move cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels
    • Protects bones and internal organs
    • Stabilizes joints
  30. Ligaments
    Connect muscle to muscle
  31. Tendons
    Connect muscle to bone
  32. Superficial Facia
    Fibrous tissue that separates muscles from skin
  33. Deep Fascia
    Fibrous tissue that separates muscles from one another
  34. Epimysium
    Connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
  35. Perimysium
    Connectivee tissue surrounding each fascile
  36. Fasicle
    A group of skeletal muscles
  37. Endomysium
    Connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

    Capillaries and nerves enter the muscle fiber through the endomysium
  38. Muscles that move the Ankle and Foot
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Tibialis Anterior
    • Fibularis Group
    • Flexor and Extensor Digitorum Longus
  39. Muscles that move the Leg
    • Quadriceps Femouris Group
    • Sattorious
    • Hamstring Group
  40. Muscles that move the Thigh
    • Iliopoas
    • Gluteus Maximus
    • Gluteus Medius
    • Adductor Group
  41. Muscles that move the Hand and Fingers
    • Flexor Carpi
    • Extensor Carpi
    • Flexor Digitorum
    • Extensor Digitorum
  42. Muscles that move the Forearm
    • Biceps Brachii
    • Triceps Brachii
    • Brachialis
  43. Muscles that move the Scapula and Arm
    • Serratus Anterior
    • Deltoid
    • Pectoalis Major
    • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Rotator Cuff
  44. Muscles that move the Trunk
    • External and Internal Intercostals
    • External and Internal Obliques
    • Transverse Abdominus
    • Rectus Abdominus
  45. Muscles that move the Head
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Trapezius
  46. Muscles of Mastication
    • Masseter
    • Temprralis
  47. Muscles of Facial Expression
    • Frontalis
    • Orbicularis Oculi
    • Orbicularis Oris
    • Buccinator
    • Zygomaticus
  48. Toe-Dancers Muscle
  49. Swimming/Rowing Muscle
    Latissimus Dorsi
  50. Smiling Muscle
  51. Trumpeters Muscle
  52. Breathing Muscles
    Intercostals and Diaphragm
  53. Shoulder Shrugging Muscles
  54. Boxers Muscles
    Biceps and Triceps Brachii
  55. Walking Muscle
  56. Kissing Muscle
    Orbicularis Oris
  57. Insertion
    Muscle insertion is found on the bone that moves
  58. Origin
    Muscle origin is found on the stationary bone
  59. Muscle Tone
    Some fibers are always contracted
  60. Isotonic Movement
    When the muscle contracts and shortens
  61. Atrophy
    Weak contractions causeing a muscle to decrease in size
  62. Prime Mover
    The muscle that does most of the work when a muscle group works together