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Are key factors in understand financial aspects such as a PSTN and VOIP network
ROI(return on investment)
offers simpler billing structure, destination points are
static and tied to a physical location.
usage based on minutes ofcall durations) and data traffic (usage based on a flat fee) to be billed in different ways.
Billed by duration (voice, fax, voice mail recording/playing)
Billed by data bytes (modem)
Billed by page (fax)
Billed by flat fee (for example, stock
Integration with billing and database services partners
Translations, SCP-based services
Unified communications (UC)
Integration of billing/UC partners
pbx multibox billing
are two foundational blocks for billing services in the IP world
AAA and Radius
is where the processing of billing-related information takes place
the server or end user
provides a vehicle to identify a client
through the exchange of logical keys or certificates between the client and the server.
sets the process of determining whether the client is
allowed to perform or request certain tasks or operations
measuring resource consumption
billing, analysis, and ongoing policy management
a data-communications protocol designed to provide security management and statistics collection in remote computing environments
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
For accounting, it is well understood that centrally stored
data is more secure
operates on the client/server model.
which gives one or more remote users access to network resources.
A RADIUS client consists of a network access server (NAS)
the client and RADIUS server are authenticated through the use of a
is shared secret sent over the network
how are the users passwords sent
add feaures and track it through the server
that enable network providers to pass valuable information in them.
vendor-specific attributes (VSA)
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) UNIX login
methods to authenticate a user.
Each protocol has its own set of features and information fields about the session established between two VoIP endpoints.
Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSA)
telephony call control switch collects this
the standards for every provider to offer billing-related information.
call detail records (CDR)
CO switch produces typical informational elements such as calling number, called number, connect time and date, call duration, and service characteristics.
Automatic Messaging Accounting (AMA)
responsible for maintaining and updating the telco general requirements (GR) for mostly the U.S. markets
sends to a RADIUS server Accounting-Request packets that correspond to the SIP transactions that the
Cisco SIP Proxy Server (SPS)
how are CDRs records saved
- plain-text logfiles
- POSTGRESQL package
- MYSQL database
the use of pins, charging rate info and disconecting a call when the funds run out
paid after the call call has been completed
collecting the phone number of the person who originated the call (ANI) and sending it to the RADIUS server, essentially using it as an account number.
what can happen when there is mix of usage and billing
records in several different formats
interoperability problems and loss of data integrity.
how many more records does a voip call have then a regular call
9 more records
only one CDR is generated for each call
call detail record that is propietary
legacy billing systems expect CDRs to be presented in
Belcore AMA Format (BAF).
requires the billing system to know what is to be counted and analyzed.
that identifies what end users are doing with their configured calling plans and service-level agreements.
industry-standard billing data structures that can be used by virtually any billing system, including the legacy voice billing system of a service provider.