Phys 2- Test 1

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bbeckers88
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95111
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Phys 2- Test 1
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2011-07-26 18:26:15
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Phys Test
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Phys 2- Test 1
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  1. intracrine
    effects the cell that produces it, no secretion
  2. autocrine
    effects the cell that secretes it
  3. paracrine
    effects neighboring cells
  4. hormone/endocrine
    effects cell in a different location, travels thru the blood
  5. neuroendocrine
    secreted by neuron into the blood to a distant location
  6. cytokine
    peptide like endocrine, released into ECF, creates concentration gradient
  7. endocrines maintain homeostasis
    change in environment -> hormone secretion-> target cell -> restoration or homeostasis
  8. Peptide hormones
    • produced in RER
    • 3+ amino acids
    • water soluble
    • activated by proteolytic cleavage
    • signaled by cAMP and Ca+
    • prohormone can be secreted then activated
  9. steroid hormones
    • made from cholesterol
    • rate limiting step- cholesterol into mitochondria
    • made on demand
    • lipid soluble- transported by globulins
  10. glucocorticoids
    steroid- cortisol
  11. mineralocorticoids
    aldosterone- steroid
  12. androgens
    testosterone- steroids
  13. estrogens
    estrone, estradiol- steroids
  14. progestins
    progesterone- steroid
  15. secosteroid
    cholesterols with a broken ring
  16. amine hormones
    • derived from tyrosine
    • 1-2 amino acids
    • thyroid hormones, catecholamines
  17. thyroid hormone
    • double tyrosine with iodine groups
    • T3- thiiodonthyroninie
    • T4- thyroxine
    • lipid soluble
    • transported by thyroxin binding globulin
  18. catecholamines
    • single tyrosine
    • norepinephrine, epinephrine
    • water soluble
    • produced by adrenal medulla
  19. Eicosanoids
    • from polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • inflammatory, immunity, CNS messengers
    • Arachadonic acid- precursor
  20. control of endocrine activity
    • increase/decrease amount of hormone circulating
    • decrease/increase number of receptors on cell surface
    • decrease/increase sensitivity of cell receptors
  21. cause of chronic insulinemia
    decrease of insulin receptors due to chronic high blood glucose
  22. which hormones use positive feedback?
    • oxitocin
    • LH
  23. rate of degredation and elimination of hormones
    • metabolic destruction by tissues
    • binding to tissue
    • recycled
    • excretion by liver/bile/feces
    • excretion by kidneys into urine
    • protein-bound hormones cleared more slowly
  24. hypothalamus is the link between nervous and endocrine systems
  25. chronotropic control of endocrine system
    secretory pulses that occur on a need basis
  26. circadian rhythems
    released once a day
  27. diurnal rhythms
    • daily
    • synchronizes with day night cycle
  28. sleep-wake cycle
    different than diurnal if you have sleep problems
  29. seasonal rhythm
    different amounts of secretion depending on time of year
  30. circhoral
    release occuring for 1 hour
  31. ultradian rhythm
    release longer than once in 24 hours
  32. thyroid hormone r/c are located
    in the cell nucleus
  33. steroid hormone r/c are located
    in the cell cytoplasm
  34. down regulation
    increase in hormone causing a decrease in number of r/c or sensitivity of r/cs
  35. up regulation
    decrease in hormone causing increase sensitivity or increase number of r/cs
  36. intracellular signaling
    • ion channel-linked r/cs- open/close ion channels with binding
    • enzyme-linked r/cs- activates second messenger
    • GTP binding linked- activates G protein, opens/closes ion channel
  37. 2nd messengers
    • fast
    • amplification
  38. cyclic nucleotides
    • adenylate cyclase catalyzes ATP- cAMP
    • guanylate cyclase catalyzes GMP- cGMP
  39. Calcium-calmodulin
    • catalyzes protein kinases
    • entry of Ca into cell
  40. phosphylipase C
    • catalyzes phospholipid breakdown
    • produces IP3 and DAG
  41. IP3
    • mobilizes mitochondrial/ER calcium
    • cell secretion of Ca
  42. DAG
    • activates kinase C
    • prostaglandins
  43. reaction of intracellular r/cs
    • r/c-hormone complex binds to DNA
    • slow response
    • causes transcription/translation
  44. agonist ligand
    • binds to r/c
    • causes hormone response
  45. antagonist ligand
    • binds to r/c
    • blocks binding hormone/response
  46. partial agonist-partial antagonist
    hormone response is less than full- dampened
  47. mixed agonist-antagonist
    act in different ways thru the same receptor
  48. deficiency causing endocrine disease
    • due to damage of hormone producing gland
    • due to genetic defects in hormonal production
    • due to inactivating mutations
  49. excess causing endocrine disease
    • gland overproducing hormone
    • overproduction of tropic hormones from hypothalmus
    • activation mutations- cell surface abnormalities
  50. resistance causing endocrine disease
    alteration in r/c number and function
  51. posterior pituitary secretes which hormones
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone
  52. Growth hormone releasing/inhibiting (somatostasin) hormone
    somatropes -> growth hormone -> cell growth
  53. Thyrotrope releasing hormone
    thyrotropes (lactotropes) -> thyroid stimulating hormone -> thyroid gland -> T3, T4 -> metabolic activation
  54. Corticotropin releasing hormone
    corticotropes -> adrenocorticotrope hormone -> adrenal cortex -> cortisol, (nor)epinephrin, aldosterone

    secretion peaks before waking
  55. gonadotropin releasing hormone
    gonadotropes -> LH, FSH -> gonads -> sex hormones
  56. prolactin releasing/inhibiting hormone
    lactotropes -> prolactin -> breast development and milk production
  57. ADH
    • controls water concentration
    • increase with concentration, decrease with dilution
    • decreased blood volume = increase ADH
  58. insufficient ADH secretion
    • diabetes insipidus
    • body cant concentrate urine
    • could also be caused by insensitivity of kidneys to ADH
  59. oversecretion of ADH
    • SIADH
    • too much water retention
    • looks like decreased Na retention, but actually diluted
  60. symptoms of diabetes insipidus
    • increased urination
    • nocturia
    • enuresis
    • increased thirst
    • increased fluid consuption
    • dehydration
  61. the hypothalamus is connected to the anterior pituitary by:
    • hypothalamic hypophysial portal system
    • -superior hypophyseal artery
  62. how many glandular cell types are found in the anterior pituitary and how many hormones do they secrete?
    5 cell types, 6 hormones
  63. TSH
    • stimulates iodine uptake
    • synthesis thyroid hormones and release
    • increases thyroid size
  64. LH and FSH
    • maturation of sperm
    • follical secretion of estrogen
    • positive feed back
  65. Hyperprolactinemia
    • pituitary tumor
    • women have menstral dysfunction
    • men have decreased testosterone
  66. Pituitary adenoma
    • benign pituitary tumor
    • produces prolactin
  67. what does growth hormone do
    • increases protein synthesis
    • increases metabolization of FA
    • decreases rate of glucose and carb use
    • stimulates cartilage and bone growth
  68. GHRH activates which second messenger in the anterior pituitary?
    JAK/STAT
  69. abnormalities of low GH
    • panhypopituitaryism- decreases all ant. pituitary hormones
    • Dwarfism
  70. causes of Dwarfism
    • panhypopituitaryism
    • GH defiency
    • somatomedian C defiencey with normal GH
  71. abnormalites with high GH
    • giantism- GH cell tumor
    • acromegaly- thick bones and soft tissue
  72. Pineal gland
    • synthesizes and secretes melatonin
    • regulates gonadal function and chronobiologic rhythms
    • tryptophan -> serotonin -> melatonin
  73. Melatonin
    • inhibited by light exposure to eyes
    • seasonal light changes effect levels
    • plays a role in abnormal sleep
    • immune system stimulant
  74. Thyroid gland cell types
    • follicular cells- secrete T3 and T4
    • parafollicular cells- secretes calcitonin
  75. Thyroglobulin
    glycoprotein, stores tyrosine and iodine to make T3 and T4
  76. How can you form a thyroid goiter?
    • if you have low levels of iodine
    • cant make thyroid hormone
    • wont initiate negative feedback
    • high levels of TSH
  77. how is iodide turned into iodine?
    via TPO (thyroid peroxidase)
  78. Thyroid hormone secretion
    • colloids of thyroid hormone taken into follicular cells
    • droplets fuse with lysosomes
    • hydrolosis of thyroglobulin to release T3 and T4
    • T4 converted to T3
  79. how is T4 converted to T3
    deiodinase- also allows for iodine recycling
  80. which carrier protine binds to T3/T4?
    thyroxine binding globulin
  81. which thyroid hormone has a better binding affinity for thyroid binding globulin?
    T4- stays in system longer, acts as a resovior
  82. Hyperthyroid can cause?
    • insomnia due to overstimulation of CNS and MS systems
    • thyroid storm
    • graves disease
    • AIDS
  83. Hypothyroid can casue?
    • hypersomnia- extreme fatigue
    • Hashimoto's thyroditis
    • postoperative hypothyroidism
  84. Thyroid inhibitors
    thiocyanate ions decrease iodide trapping- competative inhibitor
  85. symptoms of hypothyroidism
    • poor muscle tone
    • fatigue
    • cold intolerance
    • weight gain
    • depression
    • slow heart rate
    • anemia
  86. symptoms of hyperthyroidism
    • tachycardia
    • fever
    • weight loss
    • heat intolerance
    • protusion of eyeball
  87. Cretinism
    • congential lack of thyroid gland
    • genetic defect
  88. bone composition
    • organic made first
    • then inorganic hydroxyapatite- salt deposits of Ca and Ph
  89. Bone strength
    • collagen fibers
    • hydroxyapitite
  90. bone calcification
    • osteoblasts- secrete collagen and ground substance
    • collagen monomers- make osteoid bone
    • calcium salts precipitate- allowed in bone b/c pyrophostphate is neutralized
  91. where is excess calcium stored?
    in the bone
  92. bone remodeling
    • deposited by osteoblasts
    • removed by osteoclasts- controled by PTH
  93. Calcium
    • muscle contraction, hemostasis, NT
    • can't be absorbed without Vitamin D
  94. Phosphate
    • ATP, 2nd messenger, DNA, RNA
    • inorganic phosphate (Pi) inversely related to Ca
  95. Absorption and excretion of Ca and Pi in kidneys
    • controlled by PTH
    • low Ca concentration- more Ca reabsorbed
    • low Pi concentration- more Pi reabsorbed
  96. how to increase the amount of Ca reabsorbed
    Vitamin D and PTH increase calcium reabsorption by the gut, kidney, and bone
  97. Calcitonin
    decreases amount of Ca in ECF by putting it in the bones (only in kids)
  98. PTH
    • activates osteoclast activity
    • activates reabsorption of Ca
    • inhibits reabsorption of Pi
  99. Overactive parathyroid
    causes hypercalcemia/osteopurosis due to too much osteoclast activity releasing Ca into the ECF
  100. under-active parathyroid
    causes hypocalcemia which causes tetany becuase it increases the threshold of neurons making them easier to fire
  101. If there is high Ca in the fluid...
    binds to IP3, decreasing the amount of PTH, decreasing the amount of calcium reabsorbed
  102. if there is low Ca in the fluid...
    binds to cAMP causing increased PTH causing increased Ca reabsorption
  103. hypoparathyroidism
    • ostoclasts become inactive
    • bones remain strong
    • low Ca in ECF
  104. Hyperparathyroidism
    • extreme osteoclast activity
    • kidney stones
    • more Ca reabsorbed, less Pi reabsorbed
  105. Hypercalcemia
    depression
  106. secondary hyperparathyroidism
    elecated PTH due to hypocalcemia (binds to cAMP, increases PTH)
  107. Calcitonin
    • produced by parafollicular cells
    • treatment for osteopurosis
    • decreases Ca in EFC
    • overridden by PTH
  108. Vitamin D
    • increasess absorption of Ca and Pi into ECF
    • increases Ca and Pi absorption from GI
  109. how is vitamin D made active
    by PTH in the kidneys
  110. how is vitamin D regulated
    • inversely by Ca levels
    • low Ca-> increased PTH -> more converted to active Vit D
  111. rickets
    • lack of sun/diet vitamin D
    • weakens bones, leads to tetany and death
  112. osteomalacia- adult rickets
    defiency of Ca or vitamin D
  113. renal rickets
    imparied renal function, cant convert vit D to active form
  114. Congenital hypophosphatemia
    • vitamin D resistant rickets
    • defect in kidney hydroxylase enzyme
  115. osteoporosis
    • diminished bone matrix
    • osteoblastic activity normal
    • excess osteoclast activity
    • due to inactivity, malnutrition, vit D deficency, old age

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