Card Set Information
Study cards for DNA chapter
List the three characteristics that early scientists knew genes must posess.
ability to store information
information must stable enough to pass on
information must be able to mutate
If genetic information was not stable it would ______ over time.
True or False - Genetic mutations provide for genetic variability and are essential for evolution.
List the two acid components that were found as part of the genetic material.
Who performed important research with Streptococcus pneumoniae?
What bacteria strain did Griffith use in his bacterial transformation experiments?
What two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae did Griffith find?
The S strain and the R strain
Which strain of streptococcus has a capsule, S or R?
the S strain
The R strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae has what sort of exterior characteristic, smooth or rough?
The main difference between the R strain and the S strain is the absence of a:
What happened to the mice injected with S strain strep?
What happened to mice injected with R strain strep?
True of False - The S strain of streptococcus is pathogenic while the R strain is not.
What happened to the mice injected with "heat-killed" S strain strep?
What happened to mice injected with "heat-killed" S
R strain strep?
A change in genetic makeup due to the assimilation of foreign DNA is known as:
List the four nucleotides found in DNA.
Which nucleotides are purines?
Which nucleotides are pyrimadines?
How were nucleotides originally thought to pair up?
like bases would pair
What would happen if two purines paired up?
they would be too long for the DNA ladder
If two pyrimadines paired they would be too ____ for the DNA ladder.
A purine is ________ than a pyrimadine.
How do nucleotides actually pair up?
purine + pyrimadine
What are Chargaff's Rules?
The total amount of each nucleotide will vary between organisms
In a specific organism, the amount of A=T, and the amount of C=G
Do humans have more A/T pairs or C/G pairs?
Who first constructed the DNA double helix model?
Watson and Crick
What sugar is part of the DNA backbone?
What basic shape is deoxyribose?
The backbone of DNA is comprised of what two molecules?
deoxyribose and phosphate
Deoxyribose is a ______ carbon sugar.
How are the carbons in deoxyribose numbered?
At which carbon of deoxyribose will the phosphate attach?
How does one sugar-phospate attach to the next sugar-phosphate?
phosphate bonds covalently with the 3' carbon of the next sugar
The orientation of DNA strands is:
The nucleotide base pairs attach to which carbon of deoxyribose?
the 1' carbon
What type of bond connects complimentary nucleotide bases?
Because the parent strand of DNA separates and acts as a template for the daughter strand, DNA replication is said to be:
What is an origin of replication?
starting point for replication
How many origins will a eukaryotic chromosome have?
As the DNA strands pull apart from the origin, they form:
The point at which the DNA strand is pulling apart as replication moves outward is known as the:
What enzyme unwinds DNA?
The molecule that binds to, and keeps the DNA strands separated after helicase unzips them is:
the single strand binding protein
What is the role of topoisomerase?
moves ahead of helicase, breaking hydrogen bonds and relieving tension in the strand
True or False - Hydrogen bonds remain broken after topoisomerase breaks them.
False - they reform and hold until helicase breaks them again
What is needed in order for DNA replication to start?
What is the function of
to manufacture the short RNA primer
The RNA primer needed to start DNA replication is produced by:
Where the RNA primer attaches becomes the _____ prime end of the daughter strand.
DNA poly III can only add nucleotides to which end of the daughter strand?
the 3' end
A new DNA strand always forms in which direction?
5' to 3'
The 5' to 3' parent strand is known as the:
The 3' to 5' parent strand is known as the:
The strand that replicates continuously towards the replication fork is the:
The strand the replicates away from the replication fork in a series of fragments is the:
What are the three steps of leading strand replication?
DNA polymerase III attaches the appropriate nucleotides
DNA polymerase I strips off the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA nucleotides
DNA ligase fills in phosphates, connecting the DNA backbone where primers were removed
True or False - When the lagging strand fragment reaches an RNA primer, the DNA poly III will detach and move
past the previous primer and start a new fragment.
What enzyme adds nucleotides to the new DNA strand?
DNA polymerase III
What enzyme will fill in the blanks after the primers are removed?
DNA polymerase I
After the primers are removed and replaced with DNA nucleotides what enzyme will add phosphates and connect the DNA backbone?
The small fragments of nucleotides created in the 5' to 3' order on the lagging strand are known as:
At the ends of chromosomes are sequences of genetic nonsense called:
Because DNA poly III cannot add nucleotides to the 5' end of a strand, this enzyme adds telomeres to the ends of DNA strands which can be clipped off.
What enzyme proofreads and removes any incorrect nucleotides from a DNA strand?
What two things happen when an error is found in the replicated DNA strand?
nuclease clips out the incorrect nucleotides
DNA poly III adds the correct sequence