exam 3: key terms

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exam 3: key terms
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2011-07-30 18:10:39
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Exam key terms
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Key terms for chapters 4 Vital Signs & 3 Communication
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  1. Define APICAL PULSE.
    Heartbeat as measured with the bell or disk of the stethoscope placed over the apex of the heart; represents the actual beating of the heart. Most authentic of all pulses.
  2. Define AUSCULATE/AUSCULATION.
    To listen for sounds within the body to evaluate the condition of the heart, lungs, pleura, intestines, or other organs to detect fetal heart sounds.
  3. Define BLOOD PRESSURE.
    Pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the arterial walls, veins, and chambers of the heart.
  4. Define BRADYCARDIA
    Slow rhythm characterized by a pulse rate of fewer than 60 bpm.
  5. Define BRADYPNEA
    A slow respiratory rate of fewer than 12 breaths per minute
  6. Define CHEYNE-STOKES Respirations
    An abnormal pattern of respiration characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing.
  7. Define DIASTOLIC
    The period of time between contractions of the atria or ventricles, during which blood enters the relaxed chambers from the systemic circulation and the lungs.
  8. Define DYSPNEA
    Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing; may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, certain heart conditions and hemoglobin deficiency.
  9. Define DYSRHYTHMIA
    Any disturbance or abnormality in a normal rhythmic pattern, specifically irregularity in the normal rhythm of the heart; also called arrythmia.
  10. Define HYPERTENSION
    Occurs when the elevated blood pressure is above normal.
  11. Define HYPERTHERMIA
    Condition of abnormally high body temperature.
  12. Defien HYPOTENSION
    Occurs when the blood pressure is below normal.
  13. Define HYPOTHERMIA
    Condition of abnormally low body temperature.
  14. Define KOROTKOFF SOUNDS
    Sounds heard while measuring blood pressure when using a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
  15. Define ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
    A drop of 25 mm Hg in systolic pressure and a drop of 10 mm Hg in diastolic pressure when moving from a lying to sitting position.
  16. Define PULSE
    A rhythmic beating or vibrating movement; regular recurrent expansion and contraction of an artery produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts.
  17. Define PULSE DEFICIT
    A condition that exists when the radial pulse rate is less than the ventricular rate as ausculated at the apex of the heart.
  18. Define PULSE PRESSURE
    Difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures usually 30 to 40 mm Hg.
  19. Define RESPIRATION
    The taking in of O2; Its use in the tissues, and the giving off of CO2; the act of breathing (inhaling & exhaling)
  20. Define Sphygmomanometer
    Device for measuring arterial blood pressure.
  21. Define Stethoscope
    Instrument placed against patients body to hear heart, lung or bowel sounds.
  22. Define SYSTOLIC
    The number of reading that represents ventricles contracting, forcing blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. In blood pressure readings, it is the higher of the two readings.
  23. Define TACHYCARDIA
    An abnormal condition in which the myocardium contracts regularly but at a rate greater than 100 bpm.
  24. Define TACHYPNEA
    An abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
  25. Define TYMPANIC
    Membranous eardrum.
  26. Define VITAL SIGNS
    Measurement of temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure.(T P R BP)
  27. Define ACTIVE LISTENING
    Giving full attention and a concerted effort to understand the message being sent.
  28. Define AGRESSIVE COMMUNICATION
    Interacting with another in an overpowering and forceful manner to meet one's own needs at the expense of others.
  29. Define ALTERED COGNITION
    A decrease or lack of cognitive ability to receive, process and send information.
  30. Define ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    Interaction that takes into account the feelings and needs of the receiver.
  31. Define ASSERTIVENESS
    Ability to confidently and comfortably express thoughts and feelings while still respecting legitimate rights of the patient.
  32. Define CLARIFYING
    Restating the patient's message in a manner that asks the patient to verify that the message received is accurate.
  33. Define CLOSED POSTURE
    A formal, distant stance, generally with the arms and possibly the legs tightly crossed.
  34. Define CLOSED-QUESTION
    Focused question that seeks a particular answer (e.g. yes or no)
  35. Define COMMUNICATION
    Use of words and behaviors to construct, send, and interpret messages.
  36. Define CONNOTATIVE MEANING
    Reflects the individual's perception or interpretation of a given word.
  37. Define DENOTATIVE MEANING
    The commonly accepted definition of a particular word.
  38. Define EXPRESSIVE APHASIA
    A physiologic condition in which an individual is unable to communicate a desired message.
  39. Define FOCUSING
    A communication technique used when more specific information is needed to accurately understand the patient's message.
  40. Define GESTURES
    Movements used to emphasize the idea being communicate
  41. Define JARGON
    Commonplace language or terminology unique to people in a particular work setting.
  42. Define MINIMAL ENCOURAGEMENT
    A subtle communication technique that communicates to the patient that the nurse is interested and wants to hear more.
  43. Define NON-THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION
    Communication techniques, both verbal and nonverbal, that hinder the nurse-patient relationship.
  44. Define NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
    The transmission of messages without the use of words.
  45. Define ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION
    A structured form of communication in which the sender is in control.
  46. Define OPEN-ENDED QUESTION
    A question that does not require a specific response and allows the individual to elaborate freely on a subject.
  47. Define OPEN POSTURE
    A relaxed stance with uncrossed arms and legs while facing another individual.
  48. Define Paraphrasing
    A communication technique that involves restating the patient's message in the nurse's own words to verify that the nurse's interpretation of the message is correct.
  49. Define Passive Listening
    Receiving a message without any response or indication of understanding.
  50. Define POSTURE
    The way that an individual sits, stands, and moves.
  51. Define RECEIVE/RECEIVER
    The individual or individuals to whom a message is conveyed.
  52. Define RECEPTIVE APHASIA
    A physiological condition in which an individual cannot recognize or interpret the message being received.
  53. Define REFLECTING
    A communication technique that asssists the patient to "reflect" on inner feelings and thoughts rather than seeking answers or advice from someone else.
  54. Define RESTATING
    A communication technique that involves the nurse repeating to the patient what the nurse believes to be the main point that the patient is trying to convey.
  55. Define SEND/SENDER
    The person conveying a message.
  56. Define THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION
    A form of communication that facilitates the formation of a positive nurse-patient relationship.
  57. Define TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION
    A form of communication that requires that both the sender and the receiver participate equally in the interaction.
  58. Define UNASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION
    A style of communication in which the sender sacrifices legitimate personal rights to meet the needs of the receiver, often resulting in feelings of a resentment.
  59. Define VERBAL COMMUNICATION
    A form of communication that involves use of spoken or written words or symbols.

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