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What is Biology?
The science that deals with life.
A hypothese must be:
- Account for all current information
- Make the least possible assumptions
What is a hypothesis?
An idea based on an observation.
Strong acid, weak acid, water, weak base, strong base.
Where in the cell do glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, and Electron Transport System function?
- Glycolysis = Cytoplasm
- Kreb's Cycle = Mitochondira
- ETS = Mitochondira
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 ATP & 2 NADH
What is the starting point of glycolysis?
What are the products of the Kreb's Cycle?
What is the starting point of the Kreb's Cycle?
Does the electron transport system require oxygen?
For each glucose molecule list how many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are generated by each of the following: Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, and Electron Transport System.
- Glycolysis = 2 ATP, 2 NADH]
- Kreb's = 2 ATP, 8 NADH, & 2 FADH2
- ETS = 32 ATP
What is fat broken down into before it can enter Glycolysis and/or the Kreb's Cycle?
Glycerol & Fatty Acids
What is the ending point for Glycolysis?
What is the ending point for the Kreb's Cycle?
NADH-3 & ATP-1
Why does Carbon make four bonds?
because it wants four electrons in its outer most level.
Name the function of the ER
Provides a large surface area for important chemical reactions.
Name the function of the Golgi Apparatus
Packages and ships molecules throughout the cell.
Name the function of the Lysosomes
Name the function of Peroxisomes.
Breaks down hydrogen peroxide.
Name the function of the Vaculoles
Large membrane enclosed sacs that are storage sites of food and water.
Name the function of the Nuclear Membrane
Separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell.
Name the function of the Mitochondrion
Makes energy and is involved with respiration.
Name the function of the Chloroplasts
Name the function of the Ribosomes.
Takes RNA and makes into protein (Translation).
Name the function of the Cytoskeleton.
Provides shape, support, and movement.
Name the function of the Cilia and Flagella.
Involved with movement of a single cell or the enviroment.
Name 6 ways to get through a membrane.
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Active Transport
Name 2 functions of the membrane proteins.
Transport molecules across the membrane and they act as attachment points for other cells.
Name 2 functions of the plasma membrane.
- Separates the contents of the cell from the external enviroment.
- Metabolic activities
- Transports molecules across the membrane
Write the chemical equation of photosynthesis
Light + CO2 + H2O = Glucose & Oxygen
What does RuBisCO do for the cell?
RuBisCo captures CO2 & combines it w/ Ribulose to make an unstable 6 carbon molecule.
What do the photosystems do and where are they located?
They capture energy from light and are located in the Thylakoid Membrane.
Name 2 difference between photosystems I & II.
- PS II splits water and occurs first.
- PSI makes NADPH and occurs second.
Light-Capturing Events: The Details
- When a photon hits a pigment molcule, electrons are excited....
- Electrons moves on to make ATP, the Chlorophyll needs another electron so it breaks down water and steals its electron. (Releases oxygen)
Where in the cell does photosynthesis occur?
What are the final products of Photosynthesis?
Oxygen & Glucose
Name 2 things DNA accomplishes.
- Store Information
- Direct the synthesis of proteins
- Chemically change mutate genetic characteristic
What 3 molecules make up nucleic acids?
- Sugar Molecules
- Phosphate Group
- Nitrogenous Base
What does DNA polymerase do?
Polymerase builds new DNA strands
What does helicase do?
Helicase separates double stranded DNA
Name 2 differences between RNA and DNA
- DNA is double stranded and cannot leave the nucleus.
- RNA is single stranded and can leave the nucleus.
What is transcription?
Transcription is the process where the information in DNA is copied into RNA.
What is translation?
Translation is the process where RNA is turned into a protein.
Where does transcription take place in the cell?
Name 3 types of RNA that participate in translation and describe what their function is?
- mRNA = Messenger (carries the recipe for making the protein)
- tRNA = Transfer (reads the codons and brings the correct amino acids)
- rRNA = Ribose RNA (used to read the recipe and build the amino acid chain)
What do ribosomes do and where are they located in the cell?
Organelles that build proteins and they are located in the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the start codon and what amino acid does it code for?
The start codon is usually AUG and methionine.
What are the nitrogenous base?
- Uracil (RNA)
Name 4 differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
- - One divison completes the process
- - Chromosomes do not synpase
- - Homologous chromosomes do not cross-over
- - Mitosis is the replacement of worn out cells and repairs.
- - Mitosis generates somatic cells.
- - Two divisons are required to complete the procress
- - Homologous chromosomes synpase- Homologous chromosomes cross-over
- - Daughter cells are genetically different from parent cells.
- - Meiosis generates sex cells.
Describe the stages of Mitosis.
- Prophase - DNA visible, spindle fibers form
- Metaphase - Chromosomes allign at equitoral plate
- Anaphase - Chromotids pull forming 2 chromosomes.
- Telophase - spindle fibers break down and nuclear membrane starts to form.
What is the function of the spindle fibers?
To separate chromatids and moves chromosomes around.
What is cytokinesis?