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study of nervous system
those whom study the nervous system
bodys ability to read its own status with regard to every organ, sensory system, and activity carried out by the nervous sytem.
homeostasis is dependant on
1. internal environment
2. external environment
2. external environment
The subdivisions of the nervous system
- 1. peripheral nervous system PNS
- 2. central nervous system CNS
nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord, and corresponding supportive & blood tissues.
central nervous system
nervous system which includes the spinal nerves and all the other neurons which are not within the Central nervous system, including the supportive and blood tissues of the nerves and neurons.
peripheral nervous system
nervous system responsible for integrative function
central nervous system
subdivisions of nerve directionality
- 1. sensory or afferent
- 2. motor or efferent
subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system
- 1. somatic system
- 2. autonomic system
skeletal muscle responses
smooth muscle, glands, heart, and other involuntary system responses
subdivisions of the autonomic system
- 1. sympathetic
- 2. parasympathetic
part of the autonomic system associated with muscle contraction and gland secretion. An increase or decrease of these functions has a contradictory effect on its sister system or perhaps even cause it to close systems completely.
part of the autonomic system associated with rest and digestion by stimulation of gastric glands and salivary glands, and primarily to slow the heart rate by getting muscarine recpetors to release K.
Excitable cell or nerve fiber that can generate an electrical impluse that travels along the axon, initiated by chemical changes.
main body of the nerve cell
part of nerve cell that contains a large nucleus, and particularly protein, glucose, and oxygen dependent.
condition of having underactive nerve activity, with symptoms like dismeic or difficulty breathing
the length of the nerve cell and is highly dependent of the main body of the nerve cell (which produces protein within the ribosomes).
the speed of the nerve impulses depends on
thickness of the axon
insulation of fatty connective tissues along the axon that is produced my Schwann cells as a coating.
the end or terminal of an axon which contain synaptic vesicles (or tiny packages) for neurotransmitters to another neuron
boutons or axon terminals
chemical signals that help propagate the signal from one neuron's axon bouton or terminal to the soma of another neuron.
connection gap between a neuron and a neuron, muscle, organ, or endocrine gland.
the outer most point of the axon terminal
space between a synapse and its target
place or membrane that neuron signals lands on, whether it be another neuron, a muscle, organ, or endocrine gland.
a synapse between a muscle and a neuron
function as the increase of surface area as receptor regions for the cell.
the collection of soma and nerve cell bodies
subdivisions of synapses (considering method of transmission)
- 1. electrical synapse
- 2. chemical synapse
a direct and rapid, though primitive type of propagation of electical signals through a gap junction to another cell and that are thought of to be rare in mammals.
use of neurotransmitters to bridge the synaptic cleft
- 1. sensory neurons
- 2. motor neurons
- 3. interneurons
neurons destined for the CNS with the soma located in the dorsal root of the Spinal nerves ganglion.
neurons that transmit from the CNS to muscles, glands, or a soma in the CNS.
"projection neurons" that extend to distant or local neurons, and take up the majority of neurons.
a parasympathetic neurotransmitter released by sympathetic fibers under precise conditions
norephinephrine or adrenaline
a type of neuron that innervates skeletal muscles by a parasysmpatheic neurotransmitter, acetylcholine
receptors to which a cholinergic fiber will bind to
- 1. nicotinic receptors
- 2. muscarine receptors
receptors present at the motor end plate of skeletal muscle.
the condition in which a ciggarette smoker leads to a fast response in the post-synpatic neuron causing them to tremor, because their body is trying to make its own nicotine.
EPSP or excitatory post-synaptic potential
receptors that work as agonists and are associated with slow EPSP and IPSP or inhibitory post-synaptic potential.
a neurological drug that affects the parasympathetic system and increases the heart rate
a neurological chemical that affects the parasympathetic system and decreases the heart rate
* which neuron releases it?
serotonin released by serotonergic neurons
a neurotransmitter that innervates the sympatheic system's adrenergic fibers.
post-synaptic receptors that respond to sympathetic neurotransmitters.
- 1. alpha receptors
- 2. beta receptors
receptors that cause excitation of function
receptors that cause inhibition of function
Chemical or drug which blocks beta receptors
a green cell that accompanies the cells within the brain and usually provides them nourishment.
response that follows "automatically" from certain stimuli without conscious intent to protect the body
reflex response to prevent muscle tearing while tendon reflex prevents tendon tears, and is dependant on spindles ( *NOT SPINDLE MUSCLES)
stretch or myotactic response
reflex that provides voluntary movement information to and from the CNS.
Stretch or myotactic response
sensory fibers that are coiled and sense when the muscle stretches by uncoiling, sending off a series of impluses to the spinal cord. They do not contract but another fiber will return to the muscle to cause it to contract if the stretch requires a rebound.
- 1. dendrites
- 2. soma
- 3. myelin sheath
- 4. axon terminals or boutons
method of taking pictures of nerve activities
SEM or Scanning Electro microscopy
a reflex that initiates a strong signal to the spinal cordafter painful stimuli, and quickly back to the stimulated area which will inhibit extensors as well.
withdrawal or flexor reflex
if damage of a flexor or withdrawal reflex is suspected, the following reflexs are the one you check for.
- 1. patellar reflex
- 2. flexor reflex
- 3. cross-extensor reflex
- 4. ocular reflex
a signal that goes to the contralateral side to extend the limb and provide base of support once withhdrawal reflex is initaited. This is a great way to test for spinal cord function.
circular muscles around the pupil that lead to muscle constriction trigger by the parasympathetic system.
subdivisons of the autonomic system 
- 1. sympathetic system
- 2. parasympathetic system
also called the visceral nervous system
the autonomic system
where most efferent autonomic fibers originate for recieving sensory info, integrating it, and sending out the appropriate neural messages.
hypothalamus has control over 7 functions such as:
- 1. blood
- 2. respiratory rate
- 3. endocrine
- 4. food intake and metabolic rate
- 5. stress responses
- 6. reproductive hormones
- 7. managing circadian rhyhtms using input form retina. (ex sleep cycles)
the hypothalamus controls the following in the circulatory system:
- 1. pressure regulation
- 2. heart rate
- 3. electrolyte composition
- 4. thermoregulation
- 5. monitoring blood glucose levels
fibers heading away from the CNS toward the ganglion where the somas are
fibers heading to the ganglion and toward the target tissue or organ
Functions of the Sympathetic nerves are
- 1. enhancing papillary dilation and inhibiting constriction
- 2. increasing heart rate
- 3. strength of cardiac muscle contraction
- 4. vasoconstriction
- 5. decreases glandular secretions with the exception of sweat glands
- 6. inhibits gastric acid secretion
- 7. relaxes smooth muscle of the bladder so it doesnt contract
autonomic system associated with excitement
sympathetic nerve functions
the nervous system of the GI tract (considered separate from the CNS)
Enteric nervous system.
the movement caused by the ENS, set off by the stimulation of gastric fluids (but eventually ENS takes over) with the help of stretch receptors to control it.
organ under control of the parasympathetic system and some skeletal control to signal smooth muscle within it to contract in response to its expansion.