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Name two methods of imaging gene expression
What is anti-sense imaging?
- (radionuclide anti-sense oligo nucliotide)
- Are created that are complementory to a portion of mRNA.
- RASON binding stops translation
- (and thus gene expression)
What are reporter genes? what characteristics must it have? what is it used for?
- a gene that is attached to another gene of interest.
- Genes that are chosen as reporters have characteristics that make them easily identifiable.
- Used to indicate if a certain gene has expressed.
Identify 4 methods used in molecular imaging of stem cell therapies.
- magnetic particles
- quantum dots
- reporter genes
What are the 3 fundamental parameters involved in medical insurance reimbursement?
Define the terms coverage, coding & payment. How are they related?
- coverage- range or extent of healthcare that an insurer will pay for based on the plans terms
- coding-coding system used for reimbursment purposes to document and track health care services.
What are CPT codes (expand abbreviation) and what are they used for?
- current procedural termonology
- they describe procedures done for different clinical indications.
- used to order procedures.
What are HCPCS codes (expand abbreviation) and what are they used for?
- Health Care Common Procedure Coding System
- used to describe and identify supplies and services
Radiopharmaceuticals are coded with what type of codes?
What are ICD-9-CM codes (expand abbreviation) and what are they used for?
International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification
- •Diagnosis (Dx) codes
- •In addition to CPT & HCPCS codes, CMS also requires ICD-9 codes for specifying patient diagnosis
What are the two component parts of Medicare reimbursement?
Professional component: amount paid for physician’s interpretation and report;
Technical component: amount paid for all other services (staffing, equipment, radiopharmaceutical costs, etc)
How is the reimbursement amount determined for NM procedures performed on patient:
a. as an out-patient
b. an in-patient
- for outpatient APC is used Ambulatory Payment Classification
- (Groups of procedures for which a fixed rate is paid to the hospital outpatient center based on reported hospital costs)
for inpatient DRG (Diagnosis Related Group) payment system, a lump sum payment is made for all services based on patient’s hospitalization course and discharge diagnosis
What type of zoom is ideally used for pediatric imaging and why?
- zoom with pre process magnification
- pre is more effective than post
- we want only the area of interest in FOV
Mention 3 pediatric immobilization techniques commonly used
Velco, taping, sandbags
Identify 3 disadvantages of the wrapping technique for infant immobilization
- difficut to monitor vitals
- takes time to unwrap in emergency
Identify two potential disadvantages of using sandbags for pediatric immobilization
may cause attenuation or ischemia
Where can one find the guidelines for pediatric sedation?
•American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for sedation & recovery of children
What type of CPR training is required for personnel performing pediatric sedation?
What are the two drugs commonly used for pediatric sedation?
Which common sedative is used for making a child forget a traumatic procedure?
Which is the preferred site for iv insertion in pediatric patients? Why?
the hand because you can easily see their veins there.
How would you calculate a pediatric dose?
use weight based dose guidlines.
Explain the concept of Image Gently.
Which is the preferred pediatric NM imaging position w.r.t. feet/head/gantry? Why?
•Positioning feet in/ head out preferred
•Camera preferably beneath the patient when ever possible
•Prone position may be calming for some
•Direct on top of collimator imaging for small children