Chapter 4 vocab

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  1. Four types of increasing entiativity
    • Loose collections of people
    • Social categories
    • Task groups
    • Intimacy groups
  2. Autocratic leadership
    hierarchical style of leadership in which the leader gives orders to group members in order to achieve the goals of the group
  3. Charisma
    ability to inspire commitment to a particular point of view or set of goals through an engaging personality and persuasive style of communication
  4. Cohesiveness
    extent to which group members are attracted to the group
  5. Common goal
    group members tend to come together because they share the same goals
  6. Contingency theory
    Fiedler (1965) proposed that whether a socio-emotional or task-oriented leadership style is effective depends on how much situational control the leader has over the group
  7. Democratic leadership
    interactive style of leadership in which the leader discusses their plans with group members and makes them part of the decision-making process
  8. Diffusion of responsibility
    tendency perceivers have to assume that if others are present, they will take personal responsibility for the situation, absolving the perceiver of personal responsibility
  9. Distraction conflict theory
    proposes that social facilitation and inhibition are consequences of conflict experienced by the participant between the task at hand and attending to others in the immediate surroundings
  10. Drive theory
    Zajon (1965) proposed that the mere presence of others increases physiological arousal which, in turn, enhances performance of well-learned and automatic response tendencies
  11. Entitativity
    • extent to which a collection of individuals are perceived as 'group-like'
    • a group has entitativity if it is cohesive, interconnected and similar, shares common goals and involves physical interaction
  12. Individualized consideration
    treating each group member as a respected individual, delegating projects to them and coaching them in order to help them develop new skills
  13. Intellectual stimulation
    encouraging group members to think in new ways in order to solve problems faced by the group
  14. Interconnectedness
    extent to which group members are linked together by an underlying common bond
  15. Laissez-faire leadership
    distant style of leadership in which the leader rarely intervenes in the activities of the group
  16. Leader
    individual who holds a position of power and influence and has primary responsibility for determining the direction and goals of a group
  17. Leader-member exchange theory
    proposes that effective leaders will be those that have a high quality exchange relationship with their group members
  18. Leadership styles
    the actions a leader takes in order to help group members achieve their goals
  19. Least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale
    • respondents indicate how much they like the people they have worked with on a number of dimension
    • those that rate their LPC relatively positively (high-LPC) have a socio-emotional style
    • those who rate their LPC relatively negatively (low-LPC) have a task-focused style
  20. Meta-analysis
    statistical technique which allows researchers to integrate the results of many different studies to see if a trend is found consistently across those studies
  21. Personality
    • social psychologists have found that people with certain personality traits are more aggressive - irritability, rumination, emotional susceptibility, low on agreeableness
    • certain personality traits - confidence, extraversion, conscientiousness - are associated with people in positions of leadership
  22. Similarities
    groups tend to emphasize the similarities between group members and de-emphasize differences
  23. Situational control
    a leader has situational control to the extent that (1) leader-member relations are positive, (2) group tasks are well structured and (3) the leader has legitimate authority over their followers
  24. Social facilitation
    tendency for people to perform better when in front of an audience
  25. Social inhibition
    in certain situations, the presence of an audience can have a detrimental effect on performance
  26. Social loafing
    tendency for individuals to reduce the amount of effort they put in as group size increases
  27. Socio-emotional leadership
    style of leadership in which the leader concentrates on ensuring positive interpersonal dynamics within the group
  28. Task complexity
    • factor which determines whether social facilitation or social inhibition occurs
    • an audience improves performance on simple tasks but inhibits performance on complex tasks
  29. Task-focused leadership
    leader concentrates on achieving goals of the group by effectively carrying out tasks
  30. Transformational leader
    exceptional leader who motivates group members to abandon self-interest in order to work for group goals, often transforming the attitudes, behavior, direction and goals of a group
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Chapter 4 vocab

essential social psyc vocab chapter 4
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