Chapter 10: Nervous System; Anatomical Terms

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  1. central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  2. brain
    portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
  3. cerebrum
    largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum
  4. frontal lobe
    anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
  5. pariental lobe
    portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
  6. temporal lobe
    portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
  7. occipital lobe
    portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
  8. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions
  9. thalamus (dienchephalon)
    two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
  10. gyri
    ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
  11. sulci
    ditch; shallow grooves that separate gyri
  12. fissures
    splitting crack; deep grooves in the brain
  13. cerebellum
    portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
  14. brainstem
    region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels: mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
  15. ventricles
    series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  16. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  17. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissue from the braistem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  18. meninges
    three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
  19. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  20. cranial nerves
    12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
  21. spinal nerves
    31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
  22. sensory nerves
    nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain - also called afferent nerves
  23. motor nerves
    nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands - also called efferent nerves
  24. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
  25. hypothalamus
    control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
  26. sympathetic nervous system
    division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
  27. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
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Chapter 10: Nervous System; Anatomical Terms
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