problem with clear specifications of the start state, goal state, and process for reasching the goal state.
What is ill defined problem?
problem lacking clear specifications of the start stae, goal state, or the process for reaching the goal state.
what is a problem?
situtation in whcih there is a goal but it is not clear hot to reach the goal
what is fixation?
the inability to clreate a new interpretation of a problem
what is functional fixedness?
the inability to see that an object can have a funcion other than its typycal one
waht is a mental set?
tendency to use previously successful problem solving stategies without condiering others that are more appropriate for the current problem
what is insight?
a new way to interpret a problem that immediatly yellds the solution
What are the two types of solution strategies?
algorithms, and heuristics
what is an algorithm?
step by step procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem
what is a heuristic?
solution stategy that seems reasonable given our past experences with solving problems especally similar problems
what is anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
one uses his or her initional estimate as an anchor estimate and then adjusts the anchor up and down.
what are three common heuristics?
anchoring and adjustment, working backward, and means end analysis heuristics
what is working backward heuristic?
attempting to solve a problem by working from the goal state backwards the start state.
What is means-end analysis heuristic?
problems is broken downs into subgoals and we work toward decreasing the distance to take goal state by achieving these goals.
What are two heuristaics that Amos Tvisky and Daniel Kalmemos identified as ones we often use?
Representativeness heuristic, and avalibility heuristic
what is a problem of heuristics?
lead us to ignore information that is extemely relevant to the particular probability judgement
what is representativeness heuristic?
a rule of thumb for judging the probability of membership in a category by how well an object resembles that category
waht is conjuction fallacy?
incorrectly judgint the overlap of 2 uncertain events to be more probable than either of the 2 events.
what is gamblesr fallacy?
erroneous belief that a chance process is self correcting in that an event that has occured for a while is more likely to occure
what is reliability in testing?
the extent to which the scores for a test are consistent
what is validity?
the extent to whicha test measures what it is supposed to measure or predicts
what are the two types of validities and what do they consist of?
content velidity (test covers what its suppose to cover, predictive (test predics behaviors)
what is the mental age?
mental age is assesd by the test
what is chronological age?
the actual age
What is IQ
IQ is derived by (intelligence quotient= (mental age/chronologicals age) x 100)
what are L.L Thorstones 7 primary menal abilities?
verbal comprehension, number facility, spatial relations, spacial relations, perceptual speed, word fluency, associative memory, and reasoning.
How did Thurstone identify the primary abilities and what is it defined as?
Factor analysis- statistical techique that identifies clusters of test items that measure the same ability (factor)
waht is Gardeners thory of multifle intelligences?
Intelligencwe is defined as 8 independent intelligences-linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial , musical, bodily, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist
What is cattell and Horn general inteligence theory and what do the two mean?
there are 2 types of intelligence-crystalized and fluid. fluid=intelligence refers to abilities independent of aquired knowlege such as abstruct reasoning, logical problem solving. crystilized= intelligence accumilation of knowlege and the verbal and numerical skills