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Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 38
Thermal energy represents the total internal energy of an onject, the sum of its molecular kinetic and potential energies.
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 39
Kinetic theory relates the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a gas to the temperature of the gas in Kelvins.
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 40
First Law of Thermodynamics:
∆U = W + Q
is the work done ON the system
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 41
Isovolumetric (isochoric) process
∆U = W
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 42
On a PV diagram, if cycle is clockwise the system is a heat engine and the net work is nagative. If the cycle is counter clockwise the system is a refrigerator and the net work is positive.
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 43
Carnot cycles involve only isothermal and adiabatic processes. To determine the efficiency use the Kelvin temp. of the resevoirs.
Thermal Energy and Thermodynamics: 44
Second Law of Thermodynamcis
Heat flows naturally from an object at a higher temperature to one of a lower temperature.
All natural systems rend toward a state of higher disorder (entropy)
Some Physics Concepts