Micro exam 4

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Micro exam 4
2011-07-28 15:24:39
micro definition

Definitions for micro exam 4
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  1. Therapeutic index
    • ratio of toxic dose to therapeutic dose
    • drug that disrupts a microbial function not found in animals cells usually has a higher therapeutic index
  2. Antibiotics
    natural products of microorganisms
  3. Synthetic drugs
    artificially produced
  4. Semisynthetic drugs
    chemically modified natural products of microorganisms
  5. Endemic disease
    maintains a relatively steady low-level frequency at a moderately regular interval
  6. Epidemic
    sudden increase in frequency above expected number
  7. Index case
    first case in an epidemic
  8. Pandemic
    increase in disease occurrence within large population over wide region (usually worldwide)
  9. Zoonoses
    disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans
  10. Enzootic
    moderate prevalence of a disease in animals
  11. Morbidity Rate (illness)
    • measures the number of individuals who become ill as a result of a specific disease within a susceptible population during a specific time
    • # new cases during a specific time (divided by) # individuals in population
  12. Prevalence Rate
    number of cases of disease occurring within a population at any one given point in time
  13. Mortality Rate(deaths)
    the relationship of the number of deaths from a given disease to the total number of cases (divided by) size of total population with disease
  14. Propagated epidemic
    characterized by a relatively slow and prolonged rise then a gradual decline in the number of individuals infected
  15. Common source epidemic
    characterized by a sharp rise to a peak than a rapid, but not pronounced, decline in the number of individuals infected
  16. Reservior
    site or natural environmental location in which the causative organism is normally found
  17. Carrier
    an infected individual who is a potential source of infection for others and plays an important role in the epidemiology of the disease
  18. Healthy carrier
    an individual who harbors the infectious organism but is not ill
  19. Incubatory carrier
    an individual who is incubating the organism in large numbers but is not ill
  20. Active carrier
    an individual who had an overt clinical case
  21. Chronic carrier
    individuals who harbor an organism for long periods
  22. Herd Immunity
    resistance of population to infection and to spread of an infection organism because of the immunity of a large % of the population
  23. Nosocomial Infection
    • pathogens that develop within a hospital or other clinical care facility and are acquired by patients while they are in the facility
    • often caused by bacteria
  24. MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration)
    is the lowest concentration of the drug that prevents growth of a pathogen
  25. Epidemiolgy
    the study of factors influencing the occurence, transmission, distribution, prevention and control of disease in a defined population
  26. Tinea curis
    jock itch or of the groin
  27. Tinea pedis
    athlete's foot
  28. Tinea capitis
    infection of scalp
  29. Tinea unguium
    infection of the nailbed
  30. Ghon complexes
    • calcified caseous lesion
    • show up prominently in chest x-rays
  31. Erysipelas
    acute infection of dermal layer of skin
  32. Cellulitis
    diffuse, spreading infection of subcutaneous tissue
  33. Food poisoning
    food is source of pathogen (toxin or organism)
  34. Food-borne infection
    pathogen must be present and colonize host
  35. Food intoxication
    ingestion of toxin
  36. Periodontal disease
    A disease located around the teeth or in the periodontium
  37. Parenteral route
    A route of drug administration that is non-oral (e.g. by injection)
  38. Sputum
    The mucous secretions from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that is ejected (expectorated) through the mouth
  39. Selective Media
    inhibit the growth of certain microbes, providing general information regarding the bacteria that are able to grow
  40. Communicable organism
    a disease that is associated with a pathogen that can be transmitted from one host to another
  41. Indirect contact
    an infectious organisms from the source to the host via an intermediary (by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface)
  42. Catalase
    • An enzyme found in the blood and in most living cells that catalyzes the
    • decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
  43. hyaluronidase
    enzyme that breaks down hyaluronic acid; normally found in the spleen and the testicles and produced by species of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus
  44. sporozoites
    • is the cell form that infects new hosts
    • Example: Plasmodium,
    • for instance, the sporozoites are cells that develop in the mosquito's
    • salivary glands, leave the mosquito during a blood meal, and enter the
    • liver where they multiply. Cells infected with sporozoites eventually
    • burst, releasing merozoites into the bloodstream.
  45. Synergism
    • combined effects greater than sum
    • of individual effects